Chapter 5: The Atomic Nucleus
Part A: Natural Radioactivity
Part B: Nuclear Particles
Part C: Nuclear Reactions
Part D: Half Life
Part E: Induced Radioactivity
Part F: Nuclear Fission
Part G: Nuclear Fusion
Part H: Isotope Dating of Materials
Part V: Chapter 5 Vocabulary p154

Part M: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice (Blackboard - Course Content
-Required Path 2 MC Quizzes Chapter 5)

Part Z: Conceptual Chemistry Spotlight: Flacking for Shale Gas p159-161

Part A: Natural Radioactivity

 

Part B: Nuclear Particles

Part C: Nuclear Reactions

 


Electron Capture is opposite Beta Radiation
How is an electron emitted from the nucleus when only
protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus?


Positron same as Beta; Neutron less than Beta

Part D: Half Life


Half Life: I
131 is 8 days; C14 5730 years

Part E: Induced Radioactivity

 

 

Part F: Nuclear Fission

 

Part G: Nuclear Fusion


Part H: Isotope Dating of Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part V: Chapter 5 Vocabulary p154

Chapter 5 Vocabulay

Alpha Particle A subatomic particle consisting of the combination of two protons and two neutrons ejected by a radioactive nucleus. The composition of an alpha particle is the same as that of the nucleus of a helium atom.

Beta Particle An electron emitted during the radioactive decay of a radioactive nucleus.

Carbon-14 Dating The process of estimating the age of once-living material by measuring the
amount of radioactive carbon-14 present in the material.

Chain Reaction A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of one reaction event initiate
further reaction events.

Critical mass The minimum mass of fissionable material needed for a sustainable chain reaction.

Curie unit expressing the amount of radioactivity by an element measuring
3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second

Electron Capture A heavy charged unstable nucleus attracts an electron which combines with a proton
forming a neutral neutron, decreasing the atomic number of the element by one.

Gamma Rays High-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei.

Half-Life The time required for half the atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.

Nuclear Fission The splitting of the atomic nucleus into two smaller halves.

Nuclear Fusion - The combining of nuclei of light atom to form heavier nuclei.

 

Positron A subatomic particle with the mass of an electron, but a positive one charge.

 

Radioactive Material containing nuclei that are unstable because of less than optimal
balance in the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Radioactivity The high-energy particles and electromagnetic radiation emitted by
a radioactive substance.

 

Rem A unit for measuring the ability of radiation to harm living tissue

 

Strong Nuclear Force The attractive force between all nucleons, effective only at a short distance.

 

Thermonuclear fusion Nuclear fusion brought about by high temperatures.

 

Transmutation The changing of the atomic nucleus of one element into the atomic nucleus of
another element through a decrease or increase in the number of protons