Project #5: Inorganic Compound Expert           10 Points

  About Compounds: Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds

 

As you become an element expert in Chapter 3, compounds (Inorganic) are introduced in Section 3.5. Now it is time for you to become an expert at writing names and formulas of Inorganic Compounds.

 

What is the difference between Organic and Inorganic Compounds?

  1. All Organic Compounds contain the element, carbon.
  2. All Compounds that do not contain the Element Carbon are known as Inorganic Compounds*

                 *(some compounds such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are treated as inorganic compounds.)

Inorganic Compounds fall into one of five categories:

 

                     

 

How do I know which category an inorganic compound belongs?

a.   The key to deciding which category the compound belongs is to look at which element written first in the compound:

      if Metallic then ionic:  Ca3(PO4)2  Calcium phosphate
      if nonmetal then molecular:   CO2  Carbon Dioxide
      if hydrogen & (aq) then acid  HNO3  Nitric Acid

a. Ionic*(Binary**or Ternary***):  Metallic Cation + Nonmetallic Anion  
b. Molecular (Binary**):  Nonmetal-Nonmetal bonded by covalent bonds
c. Acids (aq) (Binary** or Ternary***): Hydrogen + Nonmetallic anion
                                                             (in aqueous solution)
   **(Binary Ionic, Binary Molecular, and Binary Acid only contain two different elements.)
*** (Ternary Compounds contain three or more different elements)

 

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Your first objective is to learn about Elements forming Compounds in Section 3.4
and viewing the 3.4 Video:
            Elements Can Combine to Form Compounds (two videos)
                   a. “Compounds Made from Elements”  Video #CO304NNa (8:02 Minutes)
                      You can watch the video on your cell phone: 
http://bcove.me/a1rvyyga
               
b. KM: “Oxygen Bubble Burst”  Video #CO304NNb (3:01 Minutes)  (Optional)
                       
You can watch this video on your cell phone:    http://bcove.me/e0jubw52
         

On Page 73, Figure 3.21 demonstrates the difference between an element and a compound:

          

 

      Watch this demonstration video of this chemical change:

     Combination Demo:  SodiumChlorineCombination.mp4

 

Element: Sodium (Metal)
Dangerous!

Sodium soʊdiəm/[4] is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and like the other six elements in that column, it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—a cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds as it is highly reactive with water. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons; sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. When freshly cut, sodium has a bright, silvery luster. When exposed to air, the surface rapidly tarnishes, darkening at first and then forming a white coating of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate.

Care is required in handling elemental sodium because it generates flammable hydrogen and caustic sodium hydroxide on contact with water; powdered sodium may spontaneously explode in the presence of an oxidizer.[citation needed]

 

Element: Chlorine

 (nonmetal)

Extremely Toxic!

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. Chlorine is in the halogen group (17) and is the second lightest halogen, following fluorine. The element is a yellow-green diatomic gas under standard conditions. Chlorine has the highest electron affinity and the third highest electronegativity of all the reactive elements. For this reason, chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent. Free chlorine is rare on Earth, and is usually a result of direct or indirect oxidation by oxygen.  The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. Sir Humphry Davy in 1810  named it from Ancient Greek: λωρός (khlôros) "pale green".

Nearly all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. It is the second most abundant halogen and 21st most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust.

 

 

 

Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all livingorganisms.

 

 

Compound:
Sodium Chloride

Life Giving!
 (can not live without)


Sodium chloride soʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/, also known as salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major consumer of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather. Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions that interfere with action of soap and contribute to the buildup of a scale or film of alkaline mineral deposits in household and industrial equipment and pipes. Commercial and residential water-softening units use ion exchange resins to remove the offending ions that cause the hardness. These resins are generated and regenerated using sodium chloride. Roman soldiers were not paid in coin but with salt.

 

So, two extremely dangerous elements combine to form a compound
essential for life!

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Another Example:

 

Compound:
Sodium Chloride

      NaCl(s)

  Life Giving

Element:
Oxygen  Gas
      O2 (g)

Life Giving

 

 

 

 

 

 

=

New Compound:

Sodium Hypochlorite

       NaClO (s)

  Extremely Toxic

    

 

Just varying the composition of a compound by one element or even one atom changes
 the compounds chemical properties

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Another Example:

Look Mom No Cavities!

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/2a/9f/4d/2a9f4d0df0ff57b18f0c66f8602616d6.jpg

https://img0.etsystatic.com/059/1/9430690/il_570xN.734813788_t1d8.jpg

In 1954 Crest Toothpaste was born. It was the first tooth paste with fluoride to prevent cavities.
Hoverer, Crest advertised that their tooth paste contained
Stannous fluoride. But they did not use the stock name, Tin II Fluoride*, because the word Tin would be misunderstood as the element Tin, a shinny metal

Look Mom No Cavities!

[Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially (with tin(II) in Latin) as stannous fluoride,is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2. It is a colorless solid used as an ingredient in toothpastes that are typically more expensive than those that use sodium fluoride. Stannous fluoride converts the calcium mineral apatite into fluorapatite, which makes tooth enamel more resistant to bacteria-generated acid attacks. In toothpastes containing calcium minerals, sodium fluoride becomes ineffective over time, while stannous fluoride remains effective in strengthening tooth enamel.[3] Stannous fluoride has been shown to be more effective than sodium fluoride in reducing the incidence of dental caries[4] and controlling gingivitis].

[Stannous fluoride is used under the trade name "Fluoristan" in the original formulation of the toothpaste Crest, though it was later replaced with sodium monofluorophosphate, or "Fluoristat". It is the active ingredient in Crest Pro Health brand toothpaste. Crest Pro Health issues a warning on the tube that stannous fluoride may cause staining, which can be avoided by proper brushing, and that its particular formulation is resistant to staining. Any stannous fluoride staining that occurs due to improper brushing is not permanent. Stannous fluoride is also used in Oral-B Pro-Expert.[6] Stannous fluoride is also readily available in over-the-counter rinses.]
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Your next objective is to learn to write the Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds in Section 3.5 by viewing the 3.5 Video:

                     

                    There Is A System for Naming Compounds
  
                   a.””Naming Compounds” (only Binary Ionic and Binary Molecular discussed) 
                      
Video #CO305a (3:30 Minutes)
                   Watch the video on your cell phone:
http://bcove.me/25ylz1i9

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Your next objective is to learn to write the Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds in Section 3.5 by applying  the riles from the Guidelines lised in the power point for chapter 3 or by viewing study guides highlighted in yellow below. 

 

Complete all 12 Tasks for Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds for 9 points (120 total compounds-10 compounds/task) and you must score 8 or more out of 10 to successfully complete the task.

 

Record and Submit your scores on the
      
Project #5 Online Nomenclature Verification Form

 

Guideline #1 Task #1: Binary Ionic Compound Names Online Exercise

                                                               

Guideline #1 Task #2 Binary Ionic Compound Formulas Online Exercise

                                                               

Binary Ionic Online Study Guide

 

 

Guideline #2 Task #3 Binary Molecular Compound Names Online Exercise


Guideline #2 Task #4 Binary Molecular Compound Formulas Online Exercise

                                                               
Binary Molecular Online Study Guide

 

Guideline #3 Task #5   Polyatomic Ion Names Online Exercise

                                                                 
Guideline #3 Task #6   Polyatomic Ion Formulas Online Exercise

                                                               

Polyatomic Ion Online Study Guide      Partial Polyatomic Ion List       Complete List



For the last six tasks you should have the polyatomic ion list at your fingertips:

 

Guideline #3 Task #7   Ternary Ionic Compound Names Online Exercise

                                                              
Guideline #3 Task #8   Ternary Ionic Formulas Online Exercise

                                                                 Ternary Ionic Online Study Guide

Guideline #5 Task #9    Binary/Ternary Acid Compound Names Online Exercise

                                                                 


Guideline #5 Task #10    Binary-Ternary Acid Compound Formulas Online Exercise

                                                                Binary-Ternary Acid Online Study Guide

 

Guidelines #1, #2, #3, & #5  Task #11    Inorganic Compound Names Online Homework

 


Guidelines #1, #2, #3, & #5  Task #12    Inorganic Compound Formulas Online Homework

                                                                Inorganic Compound Online Study Guide

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MSDS Research  (Material Safety Data Sheet)  1 point

When we purchase chemical there is data sheet which is packaged with the chemical, like the poop sheet
 which is included in a prescription drug. This data must be kept by law in our stockroom for every chemical on the shelf
These data sheets are called the MSDS Guide (Material Safety Data Sheet). You assignment for 1 point is research one chemical :

1.      calcium chloride

2.      sodium sulfate

3.      barium chloride

4.      hydrochloric acid

5.      sulfuric acid

6.      nitric acid

7.      naphthalene

8.      sucrose

9.      potassium chloride

10.  silver nitrate

11.  sodium nitrate

12.  ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

13.  nickel(II) sulfate

14.  copper(II) sulfate

15.  magnesium sulfate

 

16.  iodine

17.  magnesium

18.  magnesium oxide

19.  2-propanol
 or isopropyl alcohol)

20.  sodium hydroxide

21.  ammonia
 or ammonium hydroxide

22.  aluminum chloride

23.  magnesium chloride

24.  boric acid

25.  phosphoric acid

26.  ascorbic acid
(Vitamin C)

 

27.  silicon dioxide (sand)

28.  camphor

29.  sodium bicarbonate

30.  sodium acetate

31.  methyl alcohol (methanol)

32.  formaldehyde (Methanal)

33.  Benzene

34.  acetic acid (Ethanoic acid)

35.  sodium carbonate

36.  Stannous fluoride

37.  Sodium
Monofluorophosphate

38.  Acetone

39.  Sodium borate (Borax)

40.  Boric Acid

 

Some chemical information sites to research your assigned chemical:

 

Iowa State University:  http://avogadro.chem.iastate.edu/MSDS/MSDS_P.html

 

MSDSexchange: http://www.msdsxchange.com/english/index.cfm

 

 

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Sample MSDS for a Chemical: Acetone

 

2

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MSDS Laboratory Assignment 

(Please submit your form with this assignment Place numbers in labels below.)
               NFPA Codes          HMIS Codes

               nfpa-p     HMIS_small

Student Name: ____________________Class Section:______

Compound: ________________________________

Chemical Formula: _________________________

 

Appearance & Odor: ________________________

 

Boiling Point: _______    Melting Point: ________

 

Solubility in water: __________________________

 

Conditions to Avoid:_________________________

___________________________________________

 

Materials to Avoid: __________________________

 

 

Using Chemical Date Bases/Web Search to fill in the above form and submit as an attachment to an email when Project #5 is complete.

 

 

 

 

 

Safety Codes

Hazard Codes

            ChemAlert rates hazards numerically inside the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) diamond.  This symbol was chosen for its universality.

1nfpa

            The diamond has a red segment (flammability), a blue segment (health, i.e. toxicity), a yellow segment (reactivity), and a white/blank segment (special warnings such as radioactivity or no water).  Printed over each is a bold black number expressing the degree of the hazard.

            The numerical ratings are:

     4 = extreme hazard

        3 = severe hazard

        2 = moderate hazard

1 = slight hazard

                                 0 = according to present data, none

Storage Codes

The storage code is assigned according to the chemicals worst hazard:

RED               Flammable

YELLOW       Reactive and Oxidizing Agents. May react violently with air,

                           water, or other substances.

BLUE             Health Hazard.  Toxic if inhaled, ingested, or absorbed

                             through the skin.

WHITE           Corrosive.  May harm skin, eyes, or mucous membrane.

GREEN or     Presents no more than moderate hazard in any category.

ORANGE

 

nfpa-big

 

Link to the following Government web site for more details:

http://www.sefsc.noaa.gov/HTMLdocs/nfpahazard.htm

This site has the following symbol

nfpaha1

nfpa-p

HEALTH - The degree of health hazard of a chemical or material is based on the form or condition of the material, as well as its inherent properties.  The degree of health hazard of a material should indicate the degree of personal protective equipment required for working safety with the material.

1 is for slightly hazardous (toxic) material which requires only minimal protection (for example, safety glasses and gloves) in addition to normal work clothing to work with safely.

2 is for moderately toxic or a hazardous or moderately toxic material which requires additional PPE or equipment (e.g. chemical goggles, lab/work smock, local ventilation) in addition to that required for less toxic material. Consult the MSDS for specific health hazard and proper PPE to use with this material.

3 or 4 is for highly to extremely toxic (deadly) materials (and any carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen).  These materials will require specialized equipment (e.g. respirator or exhaust hood, full face shield, rubber apron, specialized glove, handling tongs, etc) beyond that required for moderately toxic material.  You must consult the MSDS and/or other safety information to determine the hazard (acute or chronic) and the proper PPE and engineering controls to safely use this material.

 

FLAMMABILITY or FIRE HAZARD - The flammability or fire hazards deal with the degree of susceptibility of the material to ignite and burn.  The form or condition of the materials, as well as their properties, affects the extent of the hazard.  Many hazardous materials such as acetone and gasoline, have a flash point (ignition temperature) far below freezing and will readily ignite with a spark if the vapor concentration is sufficient. 

1 is for materials with a flash point above 200ºF.

2 is for materials with a flash point below 200ºF but above 100ºF.

3 is for materials with a flash point below 100ºF but above 73ºF.

4 is for materials with a flash point below 73ºF.

 

nfpa-p

REACTIVITY - The reactivity hazards deal with the potential of a material or chemical to release energy.  Some materials are capable of rapid energy release without any catalyst, while others can undergo violent eruptive or explosive reactions if they come in contact with water or other materials.  Generally this rating is used to indicate the potential to react if the material is heated, jarred, or shocked. 

1 indicates a material that may be reactive if heated and one that reacts with water.

2 indicates a material that may react violently without detonation.

3 indicates a material that may detonate or explode if subjected to a strong initiating force or heating under confinement.

 4 indicates a material that readily detonates or explodes.

 

SPECIFIC HAZARD - An open space at the bottom of the NFPA diagram can be used to indicate additional information about the chemical or material.  This information may include the chemical or material's radioactivity, proper fire extinguishing agent, skin hazard, its use in pressurized containers, protective equipment required, or unusual reactivity with water. 

 OX or OXY indicates a material that is an oxidizer.

 W or W indicates a material that is water reactive.

ALK indicates a material that is alkali.

COR indicates a material that is corrosive.

RAD indicates a material that is radioactive.

Special Labeling Requirements

All containers that hold carcinogens, reproductive hazards or acutely toxic chemicals must be properly labeled concerning the health hazard posed by the chemical.  Most containers will have the chemicals hazard clearly displayed on the label.  However older chemicals and containers of solutions that are mixed in the lab must be properly labeled by the laboratory worker.  The laboratory worker may write the hazard class (e.g. carcinogen, etc.) on the container or use labels available from their Supervisor or Chemical Hygiene Officer.

 

Symbols You Should be Familiar:

toxic       flamableacs

 

 

Warnings

 

 

 

image014image015image016image017image018image019image020image023

 

 

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Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS)

Lab Symbols You Should Know:

toxic       flamableacs

 

 

Warnings

Don’t Confuse HMIS with NFPA Labeling. Read:

http://www.ilpi.com/Msds/ref/hmis.html

 

image014image015image016image017image018image019image020image023

 

The MSDS web site may be accessed at the following:

msdsleadinmsdsheadertext

http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/nfpa.html

 

 

 

HMIS_small

Below is a paragraph about the two labeling systems:

 

“At first glance, the HMIS® and NFPA labeling systems appear quite similar. Both have four sections colored blue, red, yellow and white. HMIS® uses colored bars, while NFPA uses colored diamonds. HMIS® attempts to convey full health warning information to all employees while NFPA is meant primarily for fire fighters and other emergency responders.”

.

MSDS Relevance

Specific sections of an HMIS® label include the following:

Health

o             The Health section conveys the health hazards of the material. In the latest version of HMIS®, the blue Health bar has two spaces, one for an asterisk and one for a numeric hazard rating.

If present, the asterisk signifies a chronic health hazard, meaning that long-term exposure to the material could cause a health problem such as emphysema or kidney damage. NFPA lacks this important information because the NFPA system is meant only for emergency or acute (short-term) exposures.

According to NPCA, the numeric hazard assessment procedure is different than that used by NFPA. Here are the numeric rankings for the HMIS system:

 4 

Life-threatening, major or permanent damage may result from single or repeated overexposures.

 3 

Major injury likely unless prompt action is taken and medical treatment is given.

 2 

Temporary or minor injury may occur.

 1 

Irritation or minor reversible injury possible.

 0 

No significant risk to health.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flammability

For HMIS I and II, the criteria used to assign numeric values (0 = low hazard to 4 = high hazard) are identical to those used by NFPA. In other words, in this category, the systems are identical.

For HMIS III, the flammability criteria are defined according to OSHA standards:

 4 

Flammable gases, or very volatile flammable liquids with flash points below 73 °F, and boiling points below 100 F. Materials may ignite spontaneously with air. (Class IA) .

 3 

Materials capable of ignition under almost all normal temperature conditions. Includes flammable liquids with flash points below 73 °F and boiling points above 100 °F, as well as liquids with flash points between 73 °F and 100 °F. (Classes IB & IC).

 2 

Materials which must be moderately heated or exposed to high ambient temperatures before ignition will occur. Includes liquids having a flash point at or above 100 °F but below 200 °F. (Classes II & IIIA).

 1 

Materials that must be preheated before ignition will occur. Includes liquids, solids and semi solids having a flash point above 200 °F. (Class IIIB).

 0 

Materials that will not burn.

 

 

Physical Hazard (HMIS® III)

o             Reactivity hazard are assessed using the OSHA criterion of physical hazard. Seven such hazard classes are recognized:

§        Water Reactives

§        Organic Peroxides

§        Explosives

§        Compressed gases

§        Pyrophoric materials.

§        Oxidizers

§        Unstable Reactives
This version replaces the now-obsolete yellow section titled Reactivity - see the previous section for more information. As with the Health and Flammability sections, the level of hazard is indicated using numeric values (0 = low hazard to 4 = high hazard):

 4 

Materials that are readily capable of explosive water reaction, detonation or explosive decomposition, polymerization, or self-reaction at normal temperature and pressure.

 3 

Materials that may form explosive mixtures with water and are capable of detonation or explosive reaction in the presence of a strong initiating source. Materials may polymerize, decompose, self-react, or undergo other chemical change at normal temperature and pressure with moderate risk of explosion.

 2 

Materials that are unstable and may undergo violent chemical changes at normal temperature and pressure with low risk for explosion. Materials may react violently with water or form peroxides upon exposure to air.

 1 

Materials that are normally stable but can become unstable (self-react) at high temperatures and pressures. Materials may react non-violently with water or undergo hazardous polymerization in the absence of inhibitors.

 0 

Materials that are normally stable, even under fire conditions, and will not react with water, polymerize, decompose , condense, or self-react. Non-explosives.

 

Personal Protection

o             This is by far the largest area of difference between the NFPA and HMIS® systems. In the NFPA system, the white area is used to convey special hazards whereas HMIS® uses the white section to indicate what personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used when working with the material.

Note: The NPCA specifically recommends that "preparers of MSDSs should not place HMIS® PPE designation codes on the MSDSs or labels that leave the facility, as they do not know the conditions under which their customers use those products." However, these still turn up on some MSDS's.

HMIS® uses a letter coding system for this section. We at ILPI find this unacceptable because we would rather see the PPE listed explicitly instead of having employees try to remember a bunch of codes or consult a chart, something that could lead to confusion and/or a fatal accident. Likewise, the "custom codes" aspect is particularly dangerous for visitors and contractors who may not remember/recognize that these could vary from job site to job site.

Note: Some of the letters/symbols used in this table are also used as TSCA, CHIP, and/or DoD HMIRS/HCC codes, all of which have completely different meanings and applications! Say, did we tell you we dislike code systems?

We present the lettering scheme here, along with a series of graphics meant to reinforce the meaning of each letter:

HMIS® Letter

Required Equipment

A

Safety Glasses

B

Safety GlassesGloves

C

Safety GlassesGlovesApron

D

Full Face ShieldGlovesApron

E

Safety GlassesGlovesDust

F

Safety GlassesGlovesApronDust

G

Safety GlassesGlovesVapor

H

Safety GogglesGlovesApronVapor

I

Safety GlassesGlovesDustVapor

J

Safety GogglesGlovesApronDustVapor

K

Airline Hood or MaskGlovesFull protective suitBoots

L through Z

Site-specific label. Ask your supervisor or safety specialist for handling instructions

 

 

As a lay person do not let an employer make you handle a chemical on the job without the proper protection. This exercise to search a data base for information about a chemical and its hazards should be taken seriously. Before you search the chemical data base to look up the MSDS data, Google the chemical and read the general information about the chemical such as presented above in some the examples above.