CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet Name:___________________

 

Module4i: Answers Language of Chemistry/Chemical Bonds (Chapter 11)

A. _____(02) Bond Recognition/Compound Classification-Sections  11.3, 11.5 Answers ac

B. _____(10) Dot Structures of Molecules-Section 11.7/11.8  Answers

_______(12) Module 4i Total (Seventh Exam)

 

Module 4ii: Answers Language of Chemistry/Chemical Bonds (Chapter 6)

C. _____(02) Binary Molecular(Covalent) Compounds-Section 6.4 Answers ac

D  _____(02) Binary Ionic Compounds-Section 6.4  Answers                                              

E. _____(05) Polyatomic Ions-Section – section 6.5  Answers e                                          

F. _____(05) Ternary Ionic Compounds-Section 6.5 Answers f                               

G. _____(02) Binary Acids/ Ternary Oxyacids-Section 6.6 Answers g        

H. _____(04) Inorganic Compounds 6.4-6.6 Answers h                                                                    

_______(20) Module 4ii Total (Eighth Exam)

 

_______(14) Module 4 Homework Packet Total Points

 

Foundations of College Chemistry, 14th Edition

Table of Contents

6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98

6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99

6.2 Elements and Ions 100

6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103

6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105

6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 109

6.6 Acids 111

Review 114

Review Questions 115

Paired Exercises 116

Additional Exercises 117

Challenge Exercise, Answers to Practice Exercises 118

Chapters 5–6 review 119

 

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 212

11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 213

11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 216

11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 217

11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 222

11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 224

11.6 Electronegativity 226

11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 229

11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 232

11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 234

11.10 Molecular Shape 235

Review 239

Review Questions 240

Paired Exercises 241

Additional Exercises 243

Challenge Exercises 244

Answers to Practice Exercises 245

Chapters 10–11 review 246

 

Module 4: Part A: Bond Recognition

Read the short discussion in Corwin’s (7th) sections 12.1-12.4 on pages 341-354 on the difference between Ionic and covalent bonding. In Hein (14th) read sections 11.1-11.5, 11.7

 


There are three types of chemical bonds:
 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic

There is a simpler way to predict if two atoms will transfer their electrons or share their electron in pairs making a compound. In Corwin’s 7th edition skip back to Sections 12.6 and 12.7. Read about the Pauling’s Scale of Electronegativity. Corwin Figure 12.9 shows the electronegativity of each element on the periodic chart. This table will be needed in Module Four Part II Bond Polarity. In Hein’s 14th edition, read section 11.6 about electronegativity.

 If the difference in electronegativity between two atoms is greater than 1.8 (Corwin), the electrons will transfer from one atom to the other to make ions and Ionic Compounds. Ionic (sometimes called Electrovalent) Compounds are also called salts and in nature they are called minerals and in Sports medicine Body Electrolytes. We will over simplify this concept to say if a metal meets a nonmetal ionic bonds are formed (Just a Rule of Thumb)(if a table of electronegativity is not included). Hein (14th) states on page 227 if the difference in electronegativity is greater than 2.0 the bonding is strongly ionic, while less than 1.5 strongly covalent. Then he states between 1.7-1.9 the bonding will be more ionic than covalent.

 For this course, if the difference between the electronegativity of two atoms is less than 1.7 then the two atoms will share electrons in pairs. Two types of sharing bonds are formed. Metallic and Covalent.

 Metallic Bonds are formed when two metals share electrons such as alloys of metals. 24 karat gold is pure gold and is very soft. But Jewelry is usually 10-18 Karat Gold, meaning that another metal is mixed with gold to make the solid harder. We will not study Metallic Bonds in this course, but you should know that two metals share electrons in pairs to make Metallic Bonds.

 

 

 

Metallic bonding occurs as a result of electromagnetism and describes the electrostatic attractive force that occurs between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions. It may be described as the sharing of free electrons among a lattice of positively charged ions (cations

). In a more quantum-mechanical view, the conduction electrons divide their density equally over all atoms that function as neutral (non-charged) entities.[citation needed] Metallic bonding accounts for many physical properties of metals, such as strength, ductility, thermal and electrical resistivity and conductivity, opacity, and luster.[1][2][3][4]

Metallic bonding is not the only type of chemical bonding a metal can exhibit, even as a pure substance. For example, elemental gallium consists of covalently-bound pairs of atoms in both liquid and solid state—these pairs form a crystal lattice with metallic bonding between them. Another example of a metal–metal covalent bond is mercurous ion (Hg2+2).“

 Covalent Bonds are formed when two nonmetals bond together. The elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine, and bromine will be the main nonmetals studied in drawing dot structures of molecules. Bonds between these nonmetals are always Covalent.

Part A of Module Four should now be easy. Predict what type of bond will be made if two atoms combine:

In General:

Metal-Metal = Metallic Bond  (example: Ag(5)-Au(14)-Cu(5) = 14 Karat Gold)

Metal-Nonmetal = Ionic Bond (example: Na-Cl)

Nonmetal-nonmetal = Covalent Bond (example: H2O)

M-4 Required Homework/Tests/Exercises:

       ______(32) Online Names/Formulas Homework (Submit separate Goldenrod form on Exam#2 Day)

       ________(02)  Polyatomic Ions Flash Card or Progressive Polyatomic ion online Homework

       ________(02) Corwin/Hein Textbook Chapter 6 Table Polyion Test

      ______(05)  Polyatomic Ions Progressive Test#1 (Best Score of two attempts)  Required List

      ______(05)  Polyatomic Ions Progressive Test#2 (Best Score of two attempts)  Required List

      ______(20)  Hard Copy Dot Structure Homework/Lab:  

                    

 

 

 

Module Four: Part A  Sample   Bond Recognition   2 points

Using a periodic chart (Rule of Thumb), predict the bond that would form between the two elements:

 

1.   Fe-Al            ________________

 

2.    P-S               ________________

 

3.    C-O               ________________

 

4.    B-Cl                ________________

 

5.    K-I                ________________

 

For the following element pairs use the electronegativity table below to determine if the bond is ionic or covalent.

 

6.    Na-P               ________________

 

7.    Ca-Br              ________________

 

8.    Ge-O               ________________

 

9.    P-H                  ________________

 

10.   Be-Cl                ________________

Text Reference Sections 12.1-12.2-12.3 + Study Guide: Hein: 11.6 page 227

http://www.fccj.us/chm1025/AssignmentOutline/M4PartA.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module Four: Part B Dot Structures of Molecules          0 points

Using a periodic chart draw the electron dot structures of the following molecules:

 (Choose One for each question or the one circled on the paper)

 

1.  NH3   CH4    H2O2     H2O           2.  H2SO4   H3PO4   HClO4   HClO3

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

3.  HNO3   H2CO3  HNO2                 4.      CO2    HCN     SO3     SO2 

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

5.   HC2H3O2     H2C2O4        HCHO2         6.      C2H4    C2H2   C3H8   C2H6

    carbon to carbon by single covalent bond                                                                   bond carbons to carbon

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

7.    CH3CH2OH             CH3COCH3                                              CH2O (HCHO)                    

          (carbon to carbons by single covalent bonds-oxygen attach to carbon)                         

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

 

8.   CH3OCH3                             CHONH2                 CH3CH2CH2OH    CH3CHOHCH3
oxygen separates the carbons       O & N both bond to C            (all three carbons single bonded and –OH attached to carbon)

 

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

9.          CH2NH2COOH            CH3CHNH2COOH         

 carbon to carbons by single covalent bonds (-NH2 amino on#2 carbon in both above)

 

 

 

Submit these dot structures as a separate homework

 

 

 

10.      CH3COOCH2CH3                HCOOCH3

           (-CH2CH3 also hooks to oxygen in#10, as well as - CH3 )

 

Submit these dot structures as a separate lab homework 10 points

 

See handout and Corwin Chapter 12 sections 12.4-12.5 for directions; Hein Chapter 11 Sections 11.7, 11.8, 11.9

 

Drag and Drop Interactive Web Site (Nothing required to turn in):

http://www.lsua.us/chem1001/dragdrop/menu.html
CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

 

 Binary Molecular compounds are explained after the ionic compounds in Corwin (7th) Chapter 6 section 6.7, and inorganic acids are not covered until last in the chapter, sections 6.8 and 6.9 (Corwin 7th. Hein includes Binary Molecular at the end of section 6.4 (Page 108 14th) covering all Binary Compounds first ionic, then molecular.

 

 The required Online Binary Covalent Molecular Homework

The web site is:
 C: Binary Molecular Names:
http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/Molecules/25BinaryCovalent.html

C1: Binary Molecular Formulas:
http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/MoleculeFormula/25BinaryMolecularFormula.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here is a brief tutorial for Part C: 

 PART C: BINARY COVALENT COMPOUNDS

 Both elements are nonmetals attached by covalent bonds.  These bonds may be single, double, or triple covalent.  Due to the covalent bonding there are many ratios of the same two elements making many different compounds.  For this reason, the chemist states how many atoms of each element is present in the chemical formula in the formal name of the compound.

Prefixes are attached to each element to indicate how many.  Each student should learn the following prefixes:

MONO            =          ONE                                        HEXA              =          SIX

DI                    =          TWO                                       HEPTA            =          SEVEN

TRI                  =          THREE                                   OCTA             =          EIGHT

TETRA            =          FOUR                                      NONA            =          NINE

PENTA            =          FIVE                                        DECA              =          TEN

The element that is shown first in the chemical formula is written first using the proper prefix to indicate how may atoms of that element is contained in the compound.  If there is only one atom of that element it is often found without the prefix mono.  If you leave the prefix off then it is understood that you mean mono.

The element which is written second in the chemical formula is written second in the chemical name, but in addition to the prefix indicating how many, the suffix of the element’s name is changed to -ide

 carbon becomes carbide                             chlorine becomes chloride

sulfur becomes sulfide                                oxygen becomes oxide

hydrogen becomes hydride                        nitrogen becomes nitride 

Therefore, the following formulas of binary compounds would be spoken:

CCl4                 carbon tetrachloride                                                     

SO2                  sulfur dioxide

CO2                 carbon dioxide

N2O3                dinitrogen trioxide

 BH3                 boron trihydride

We use common names for NH3, and H2O. What would be their correct binary molecular names? Methane, CH4, is the organic name for CH4, what would its inorganic name be?

 For more practice on Corwin page 185 try problems 45 thru 48 for binary nonmetal compounds.

 

Module Four: Part C    Binary Molecular Compounds      2 points

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:

 

Homework Packet Sample test: answer on grading outline

1.    CO       ____________________

 

2.    SO3     _____________________

 

3.    N2O5   _____________________

 

4.    N2O7   _____________________

 

5.    N2O     _____________________

 

6.    Phosphorus pentachloride     _________

 

7.    Boron trifluoride                     _________

 

8.    Carbon dioxide                      _________

 

9.    Sulfur Trioxide                       _________

 

10.  Carbon Tetrachloride            _________

 

Textbook Reference: Corwin Chapter 6 Section 6.7 Optional End of Chapter p185 #45-48

Hein Section 6.4  page 108

 

Online Homework (2 Points Each Required):

 

C: Binary Molecular (Covalent) Homework: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/Molecules/25BinaryCovalent.html

C1. Binary Molecular (Covalent) Formulas: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/MoleculeFormula/25BinaryMolecularFormula.html

 

Submit grades on separate grading Sheet(goldenrod) when taking Module 4 Exam

 

Online Study Guide:
http://www.fccj.us/chm1025/AssignmentOutline/M4PartC.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

Module 4: PART D:   BINARY  (IONIC) COMPOUNDS

       Most Common Ionic Charges for Monatomic Ions

PART D:   BINARY  (IONIC) COMPOUNDS

The element written first in either the name or the formula is a metal.  The element written second is a nonmetal.  Salts are metallic and nonmetallic ionic compounds.  There are no molecules of salts-just macro ionic lattices.  Name the metallic element. 

If the metallic element has more than one ionic state, write a ROMAN NUMERAL after the element’s name (In Parathesis) to indicate which charge state the metallic element is using to form the compound.

 Drop the suffix off the nonmetal’s name and add -ide which indicates the salt is binary

(exceptions: cyanide & hydroxide which are polyatomic ions).

No prefixes are used to indicate how many atoms are present in the formula. 

Examples:

NaCl                Sodium Chloride (table salt)

 Al2O3               Aluminum oxide

FeS                  Iron(II) sulfide (Note: No space between the metal and the parenthesis)

 Fe2O              Iron(III) oxide (rust)

 

 

 

 

 

To write the formula from the name of the salt use the following procedure:

 (a) Write the symbols (or formulas for radicals) of the ions represented
For Example: 
 
Calcium nitride

 (a)                                Ca          N

(b)  Use the periodic chart to write the ion charge of each element (or polyatomic ion) as superscripts: 

                           Ca+2            N-3

  (c ) Find the L.C.M. (Least common multiple) of the positive and negative charge.

 The LCM is the smallest number that both charges will decide into evenly.  The LCM is  the total electrons transferred.  Therefore, it represents the total  positive charge created by the metallic ions and the total negative charge created by the nonmetallic ions.  This may  be proved by drawing the dot structure of the compound showing all electrons transferred.

 The LCM of +2 and -3 is 6,   therefore 6 e-1 are transferred creating a total positive charge of +6, and the total negative charge of -6

         --> 6e-1-->
Ca+2                    
 N-3

 (d   (d) Divide the LCM by the positive charge, this dividend will represent the subscript behind the metallic ion in the formula.

+6 divided by +2 = 3; therefore half of the formula is:    Ca3Nx

 

 (e)  Divide the LCM by the negative charge, this dividend will represent the number of nonmetallic ions in the formula.

-6 divided by -3 = 2; therefore the other half of the formula is:   Ca3N2          

 

Example:           Potassium phosphide

 Write Symbols and the Charges:

                   K+1     P -3

   LCM:    3

        Balance the chemical formula:

                   K3P       

 In addition to working the sample tests, you may want to practice on writing the names and formulas for Ionic Compounds. 

On Corwin (7th) pages 184-5, questions 19 thru 34 are also good practice. Hein (14th) page 116

You must complete the online homework for 3 points each:

 

D. Binary Ionic Names:

http://www.fscj.me/Nomenclature/BinarySalts/25BinaryIonicJT.html

 

D1. Binary Ionic Formulas:

http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/BinaryIonicFormula/25BinaryIonicFormula.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module Four: Part D   Binary Ionic Compounds     2 points

Using a periodic chart, write the names or the balanced formulas for the following compounds depending on whether the formula or the name is given:

 

1.   Copper II phosphide                _________ (Cupric phosphide)

 

2.    Iron III Oxide (rust)                  _________  (Ferric Oxide)

 

3.    Lead IV sulfide                        _________  (Plumbic sulfide)

 

4.    Sodium chloride                      _________

 

5.    Tin II fluoride (in toothpaste)   _________  (Stannous Fluoride)

 

 

6.   MgCl2        ________________________

 

 

7.    NiF2         ________________________

 

 

8.   K3N          ________________________

 

 

9.   Al2O3       ________________________

 

 

10. CuBr         ________________________

 

Optional: Also Work  Questions #25-34 P 184-185 in Corwin 7th textbook Reference Section 6.4-6.5 Corwin text

 

Online Homework (3  Points Each):

D: Binary Ionic Compound Homework: http://www.fscj.me/Nomenclature/BinarySalts/25BinaryIonicJT.html

 

D1. Binary Ionic Formulas:

http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/BinaryIonicFormula/25BinaryIonicFormula.html

 

 Submit grades on separate grading Sheet when taking Module 4 Exam

 

Online Study Guide:
http://www.fccj.us/chm1025/AssignmentOutline/M4PartD.htm

 

 

 

 

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

 

Corwin’s (7th) Ion Flowchart-Chapter 6

 

                              

 

From Chapter 6 Corwin (7th) (Chapter 5 Hill), Chapter 6 Hein (14th)Monoatomic Anions or Cations can be predicted the position the element resides on the periodic chart, if the ion come from a Representative Element (IA-VIIIA) or by its name if it is a transitional metal with several different charges. Below is Corwin (7th) Figure 6.3 demonstrating common cations and anions:

                              Periodic Table of Selected Ions

 

Note the charges for groups IA, IIA, IIIA, VA, VIA, VIIIA. From book to book, the charges on the transitional metals will vary

 

You should practice: M-3 Part F, then try M-4 Part D and write the formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds. Sections 6.4 and 6.5 of the Corwin (7th) text describes the process.  For the Hein Textbook (14th) look at sections 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. Then you should try the web site for homework points Naming Binary Ionic Compounds (if you already have not done so!):

 

http://www.fscj.me/Nomenclature/BinarySalts/25BinaryIonicJT.html

 

and writing the formulas of Binary Salts (if you have not already done so):

 

http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/BinaryIonicFormula/25BinaryIonicFormula.html

 

You should practice Questions #19-#34 at the end of Chapter 6 (Corwin 7th) for more practice.

Almost all chemistry textbooks have sections dedicated to polyatomic ions and include a list of common ions.

 

 

What is a polyatomic ion?

A group of atoms bound together (covalent bonds) that bears an overall negative or positive charge.

Corwin (7th) suggests that you use flash cards listing the name on one side and the formula with its charge on the other to aide your memorization of these formulas. Most chemistry teachers require you to know some of the common polyatomic ions by the end of the course whether it is from repetition of use with a help table or from memory from the first day of introduction. Below are tables from various chemistry books used:

 

Polyatomic Ion Charts from Textbooks
McMurray:
Table 3.2    Corwin: Table 7.03
Silverberg:
Table 2.5      Tillery: Table 9.3
Kotz:    
Table 3.1             Hill: Table 5.04

 

Here is a sample polyatomic ion table:

Hill’s Table 5.4 (and Hill suggest for you to memorize the entire table):


 After you start memorizing, during the course the formulas may be swimming in you head and the charges too. To write balance Ternary Ionic Compounds, you must be able to write the formula and the charge of each polyatomic ion required.

Corwin suggests there is only one (Hill has two) common polyatomic Cation(s) and both end in ium suffix. He notes most of the Anions have an –ate suffix, while a few have ite, and two have ide in their name. How do we accomplish this list?

 

Knowing dot structures of polyatomic ions (Corwin Chapter 12 section 12.5), and some keen observations you can boil it down to six questions:

1.   What is the formula for the –ate polyatomic ion?

2.   What is the charge on –ate polyatomic ion?

3.   What happens when you attach hydrogen atom(s) to the polyatomic

     2- and 3- anions?

4. What does ite mean?

5.   How do the hypo- and per- prefixes apply to polyatomic ions?

6.   What are the two ide polyatomic ions and two -ium positive Anions?

 

 

Your First task is to memorize the formulas and the charges for the polyatomic ions in your text book for a short test:

Progressive Polyatomic Ions Corwin (0 points)) 

Write the formula and the charge for the following polyatomic ions: Corwin(Table 6.3) 19 points 

Name

Formula with charge

Acetate

 

Ammonium

 

Carbonate

 

 

Chlorate

 

 

Chlorite

 

 

Chromate

 

 

Cyanide

 

 

Dichromate

 

 

Hydrogen

Carbonate

 

Hydrogen sulfate         

 

Hydroxide

 

 

Hypochlorite

 

 

Nitrate

 

 

Nitrite

 

 

Perchlorate

 

 

Permanganate

 

 

Phosphate

 

Sulfate

 

 

Sulfite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Progressive Polyatomic Ions Hein (2 points) 

Write the formula and the charge for the following polyatomic ions: Hein(Table 6.5 page 109) 18 points

Name

Formula with charge

Acetate

 

 

Ammonium

 

 

Arsenate

 

 

Carbonate

 

 

Chlorate

 

 

Chromate

 

 

Cyanide

 

 

Dichromate

 

 

Hydrogen

Carbonate

 

Hydrogen sulfate         

 

Hydroxide

 

 

Nitrate

 

 

Nitrite

 

 

Permanganate

 

 

Phosphate

 

 

Sulfate

 

 

Sulfite

 

 

 

So: it is time for you to discover, what I saw over 50 years ago. It is not in any textbook. The books just say know or memorize these tables. Go to:

 

http://www.fccj.us/PolyatomicIons/polyionformula.html

 

When you go to the siute above (which looks like the image below), click on the X for each polyatomic ion and note if the # of oxygens is three or four in the formula.

 

 

To expose the threes and the fours in the lower left hand corner (Taylor’s ¾ rule) click the numbers 0,1…8,9 Border three rule, then 1,2..5,6 in the box of six rule. Also do the 0,1…7,8 Transitional O4 Rule.

 

Taylor’s ¾ rule is summarized at:

http://www.fccj.us/PolyatomicIons/Taylor34OxygenRuleHandout.htm

 

 

 

 

Then do the same for the box just to the right of Taylor’s ¾ Rule, and discover Taylor’s Charge Rule.

 

Taylor’s Charge Rule is summarized at:

http://www.fccj.us/PolyatomicIons/TaylorChargeRuleHandout.htm

 

 

The story behind how your instructor related the periodic table to a long list of polyions, read the abstract for his talk at 2YC3:

 

http://www.fccj.us/PolyatomicIons/2YC3HowTeachPolyatomiIonsInChemistry.htm

 

Now comes the big task!

 

You may either memorize 55 polyatomic ions or learn to read the periodic table with six rules and be able to write formulas and the charges for the required 1025 list:

http://www.fscj.me/PolyatomicIons/25MemorizeList.htm

 

 

 

 

Either make a hard copy set of polyatomic ion flash cards or practice the 65 polyatomic ions Flash Card web site for 2 points  at:

 

http://www.fscj.me/Nomenclature/PolyatomicIonFormula/ProgressivePolyatomicIonFormula.html

 

 

Module Four: Part E    Polyatomic Ions                 2 points

 

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following polyatomic ions depending on whether the formula or name is given:

 

1.   CO32-       _____________________

 

2.   SO32-       _____________________

 

3.   PO33-     _____________________

 

4.   ClO31-     _____________________

 

5.   NO31-     _____________________

 

6.   Hydroxide          ________

 

7.   Ammonium        ________

 

8.   Hypochlorite       ________

 

9.   Nitrite                  ________

 

10.  Phosphate          ________

 

Textbook (Corwin 7th) Reference: Chapter 6 Section 6.3 Table 6.3 Optional End of Chapter p184 #13-18

Hein (14th): Section 6.5 Memorize the formulas and charges of Hein Table 6.5 (18 ions)

 

Online Required  Homework (3 Points Each):

 

E: Polyatomic Ion Names Homework: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/PolyatomicIon/25PolyatomicIon.html   

E1. Polyatomic Ion Formulas: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/PolyatomicIonFormula/25PolyatomicIonFormula.html

 

Submit grades on separate grading Sheet (Goldenrod) when taking Module 4 exam or download the form from:

http://www.fscj.me/chm1025/NomenclatureGradingLabForm.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet


In chemistry, a ternary compound is a compound containing three different elements. An example of this is sodium phosphate, Na3PO4. The sodium ion has a charge of 1+ and the phosphate ion has a charge of 3-. Therefore, three sodium ions are needed to balance the charge of one phosphate ion. Another example of a ternary compound is calcium carbonate . In naming and writing the formulae for ternary compounds, we follow rules that are similar to binary compounds.(CaCO3).

 

Ste that uses least common multiple balance method:

http://web.tenafly.k12.nj.us/chemquest2/ternary_compounds.htm

 

Sites (You-tubes) that use the crossing method(UGH):

You-Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eJtYffLWKc

Another You-Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXyxrzUw99A

 

Module Four: Part F    Ternary Ionic Compounds        2 points

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:

 

1.   Na2CO3       _____________________

 

2.   K2SO4           _____________________

 

3.   (NH4)3PO4    _____________________

 

4.   Ca(ClO3)2     _____________________

 

5.   CuNO3            _____________________

 

6.   Aluminum Hydroxide          ____________

 

7.   Ammonium carbonate        ____________

 

8.   Sodium Hypochlorite          ____________

 

9.   Magnesium Nitrate              ____________

 

10.  Iron III sulfite                       _____________

 

Corwin Text Sections 6.4 and 6.6

Optional Additional Homework: p 185 Q #35-44

Online Homework (3 Points Each Required):

 

F: Ternary Ionic Compound Names Homework: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/TernarySalts/25ternaryIonic.html    

 

F1. Ternary Ionic Compound Formulas: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/TernarySaltFormula/25ternaryionicformula.html

 

Submit grades on separate grading Sheet when taking M-4 Exam

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

Module 4 Part G: Binary/Ternary Acids

What is an acid?

A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. Inorganic formulas of acids have ionizable hydrogen(s) written first in the formula.


      Strong Acids               Weak Acids

Strong acids ionize 100% in a water solution, while Weak Acids ionize
less than 5% in a water solution
.

There are Binary/Ternary Acid online homeworks for your practice for M-4 Part G:

G: Binary/Ternary Acid Names:
http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/Acids/25Acids.html

G1: Binary/Ternary Acid Names:
http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/AcidFormulas/25AcidFormulas.html  

( Chapter 6 Bishop Sections 6.3-6.4 )give you instructions for naming and writing formulas of acids. );
 (Chapter 6 Corwin 7th covers binary acids in section 6.8; while section 6.9 covers ternary acids.) (Hein 14th covers acids in section 6.6

A brief tutorial for names and formulas of acids follows:

If hydrogen is written first in a chemical formula, there is two ways to name the compound. As a pure molecular compound or as an aqueous acid:

If the compound is a pure molecular compound then you name it just as if it were an ionic compound:

HCl          hydrogen chloride

HClO        hydrogen hypochlorite

 

HClO2      hydrogen chlorite

HClO3      hydrogen chlorate

HClO4      hydrogen perchlorate

H3PO4      hydrogen phosphate

H2CO3      hydrogen carbonate

H2SO4      hydrogen sulfate

H2SO      hydrogen sulfite

HC2H3O2   hydrogen acetate 

H2C2O4     hydrogen oxalate

HBr          hydrogen bromide

HF            hydrogen fluoride   

Writing hydrogen first in a chemical formula indicates that when you dissolve the compound in water, a water molecule has the ability to pull the hydrogen off  (from strong electronegative elements like oxygen)  the molecule HXO3 and creating hydronium ions, H3O1+ and  a negative ion XO31- (cation).

The way you indicate this ionic solution is to write the formula followed by (aq) meaning a water solution:  HXO3 (aq) .

The first step is to drop the first word hydrogen and
add a second word
acid: 

HCl          hydrogen chloride acid (aq)

HClO        hydrogen hypochlorite acid (aq)

HClO2      hydrogen chlorite acid (aq)

HClO3      hydrogen chlorate acid (aq)

HClO4      hydrogen perchlorate acid (aq)

H3PO4     hydrogen phosphate acid (aq)

H2CO3     hydrogen carbonate acid (aq)

H2SO4     hydrogen sulfate acid (aq)

H2SO3     hydrogen sulfite acid (aq)

HC2H3O2   hydrogen acetate acid (aq)

H2C2O4    hydrogen oxalate acid (aq)

HBr          hydrogen bromide acid (aq)

HF            hydrogen fluoride acid (aq)

  

 

The next step is to drop the suffix from the cation and make the following substitution with another suffix:

Change the -ate to -ic

Change the -ite to -ous

but the instead of coming up with a third suffix for -ide , they reused the -ic for -ide and added a prefix hydro- (Do not get this confused with the prefix hypo- which means 'under'.)

HCl          hydrochloric  acid (aq)

HClO        hypochlorous acid (aq)

HClO2      chlorous acid (aq)

HClO3      chloric  acid (aq)

HClO4      perchloric  acid (aq)

H3PO4     phosphoric  acid  (aq) (Put the -or- syllable back in the name)

H2CO3     carbonic  acid (aq)

H2SO4     sulfuric  acid  (aq) (Put the -ur- syllable back in the name)

H2SO3     sulfurous acid (aq) (Put the -ur- syllable back in the name)

HC2H3O2   acetic  acid (aq(Notice the three hydrogens written after carbon are NOT ionizable and not written first in the formula)

H2C2O4    oxalic acid (aq)

HBr          hydrobromic acid (aq)

HF            hydrofluoric acid (aq)

On Corwin 7th page 185 Questions 49-56 will give you more practice on writing names and formulas of acids.

At the end of chapter 6 Hein 14th exercises 17, 18, 19, and 20 pages 116-117 are additional acid nomenclature problems.

 

 

 

Module Four: Part G    Binary/Ternary Acids                 2 points

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:

 

1.    HCl       _____________________

 

2.    H2SO4     ____________________        

 

3.    HNO3      _____________________

 

4.  HNO2        ___________________

 

5.   H2CO3      ___________________

 

6.    Hypochlorous acid          _________

 

7.    Phosphoric acid              _________

 

8.    Sulfurous acid                 _________

 

9.    Perchloric acid                _________

 

10.  Hydrofluoric acid              ________

 

Corwin 7th Text Sections 6.8 and 6.9

Optional Additional Homework: p 185 Q #49-56

Online Homework (2 Points Each Required):

 

G: Binary/Ternary Acid Names Homework: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/Acids/25Acids.html     

 

G1. Binary/Ternary Acid Formulas:

http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/AcidFormulas/25AcidFormulas.html

 

Submit grades on separate grading Sheet when taking M-4 Exam

 

Online Study Guide:
http://www.fccj.us/chm1025/AssignmentOutline/M4PartG.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

 

Module Four: Part H    Inorganic Compounds         2 points

The key to deciding which system to use in Part H is to look at the element written first.

 1. If a Metal is written first (or a polyatomic ion), then use the rules for ionic compounds (salts).

2. If a nonmetal is written first, then use the Covalent/Molecule System with prefixes. (If the compound is Organic Nomenclature of Organics is covered in Chapter 11, but for now use the prefix system of binary molecular nomenclature.

3. If hydrogen is written first (and it is in aqueous solution) then name it as an Acid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHM 1025C Module 4 Homework Packet

 

Module Four: Part H    Inorganic Compounds         2 points

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following polyatomic ions depending on whether the formula or name is given:

 

1.  H2CO3         _____________________

 

2.   MgSO4       _____________________

 

3.   Ca3(PO3)2  ____________________

 

4.   HClO3       _____________________

 

5.   SO3           _____________________

 

6.   Fe2O3             _____________________

 

7.    Aluminum Hydroxide       ____________

 

8.   Ammonium chloride        _____________

 

9.   Sodium Hypochlorite       _____________

 

10.   Nitrogen dioxide              _____________

 

11.  Calcium Phosphate          ____________

 

12.  Sulfuric acid                     ____________

 

Corwin Text Sections 6.1 through 6.9

Optional Additional Homework: p 185-6 General Exercises;

Hein 6.3-6.6  End of chapter pages 116-117 Q# 7-16

 

Online Homework (3 Points Each Required):

 

H: Inorganic Compound Names Homework: http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/Inorganic/25inorganic.html      

 

H1. Inorganic Compound Formulas:

http://www.northcampus.net/Nomenclature/InorganicFormula/25inorganicFormula.html 

 

Submit grades on separate grading Sheet when taking M-4 Exam

 

Online Study Guide:

http://www.fccj.us/chm1025/AssignmentOutline/M4PartH.htm