CHM 1032C†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Name: _________________
CHM 1032C Chapter 8: Gases, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 8 Grading Outline

Chapter 8i: The Gaseous State(Chapter 8) Close Book In-class Exam

A1._____(04) Properties of Solids (8.14), Liquids(8.12), and Gases 8.3 Answers

A.______(04) Kinetic Molecular Theory-Section 8.3 page220-221Answers a

B.______(02) Discussion Real vs Ideal Gas Equation-lecture Answer bc

C.______(06) Standard Conditions/Molar Volume-Sect 8.3 p221 Answer bc

D.______(06) Gas Laws/Vocabulary-Sections 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11 Answers

______(22) Module 6i Total (Twelfth Exam)

Chapter 8ii: The Gaseous State(Chapter 8) Take-Home Exam

E.______(14) Gas Law Problems- Sections 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11 Answers
F. ______(06) Enthalpy Change with Phase Change Prob-Sect 8.15 Answer Sample 2
______(20) Chapter 8ii Total (Twelfth Exam)

Table of Contents:

Chapter 8. Gases, Liquids, and Solids
8.1 States of Matter and Their Changes
8.2 Intermolecular Forces
8.3 Gases and the KineticĖMolecular Theory
8.4 Pressure
8.5 Boyleís Law: The Relation between Volume and Pressure
8.6 Charlesís Law: The Relation between Volume and Temperature
8.7 Gay-Lussacís Law: The Relation between Pressure and Temperature
8.8 The Combined Gas Law
8.9 Avogadroís Law: The Relation between Volume and Molar Amount
8.10 The Ideal Gas Law
8.11 Partial Pressure and Daltonís Law
8.12 Liquids
8.13 Water:  A Unique Liquid
8.14 Solids
8.15 Changes of State - See more at:

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Fundamentals-of-General-Organic-and-Biological-Chemistry/9780321750839.page#sthash.TkqF09Pk.dpuf

 

 

To begin your study of Chapter 8, please read Chapter 8 8

 

 

Part A: Kinetic Molecular Theory-Section 8.3

The gas properties and laws discussed in Chapter 12 (Hein) are based on the Kinetic Molecular theory.  The CHM 1025C text list five (or six basic assumptions). You will write these assumptions

1. Gases are composed of molecules*[1].  The distance between the molecules is very-very great compared to the size of the molecules themselves, and the total volume of the molecules is only a very-very small fraction of the entire space occupied by the gas.  Therefore, considering volume, we are primary considering empty space.  (This assumption explains why gases are highly compressed and have very low densities.)
(Gases are made up of very tiny molecules. The volume of a gas is mainly empty space).

 

2. No attractive forces exist between molecules in a gas.  (This is what keeps a gas from spontaneously becoming a liquid.)
(Gas molecules have no attraction for one another.)

3. The molecules of a gas are in a state of constant, rapid motion, colliding with each other and with the walls of the container in a perfectly random manner.  (This assumption explains why different gases normally mix completely.  The collisions between molecules and the walls of the container account for the pressure exerted by the gas.)
(Gas molecules demonstrate rapid motion, move in straight lines, and travel in random directions.)

4. All of these molecular collisions are perfectly elastic. As a result, the system as a whole experiences no loss of kinetic energy, the energy derived from the motion of a particle.
(Gas molecules undergo perfect elastic collisions.)

 

5. The average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas is proportional to the absolute temperature, and the average kinetic energy per molecule is the same at a given temperature and pressure for all gases. 
(The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is proportional to the Kelvin temperature, that is KE is approximately T.)

When we think of molecules of elemental gases, we usually think of the diatomic gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, etc. The Nobel gases exist as monoatomic gases such as Helium, Neon, etc.

Sometexts reduce these assumptions to three, these assumptions are condensed as follows:

(a) Gases consist of particles (molecules or atoms), whose separation is much greater than the size of the particles themselves.

(b) The particles of a gas are in continual, random, and rapid motion. As they move, they collide with one another and with the walls of their container, but they do so without energy loss.

(c) The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the gas temperature. All gases, regardless of molar mass, have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature.

Module Six- Part A: Kinetic Molecular Theory††† 2 points

 

State the 5 assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular theory as stated in the book (Section 8.3) :

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Chapter 8 Homework Packet-Page 2

Chapter 8 A1 Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases3 Points

 

State four of the five properties of solids:

 

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

d.

 

e.

 

State four of the five properties of liquids :

 

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

d.

 

e.

 

State four of the five properties of gases :

 

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

d.

 

e.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8 Homework Packet Ė Page 3

Part B: Discussion Real vs Ideal Gas Equation

If you have an understanding of the Kinetic Molecular Theory above then when you read in a college chemistry textyou apply the KMT to gases in non ideal behavior. At STP gases behave ideally. But under extreme conditions which cause overcrowding (what are these conditions?), the KMT breaks down such that the Ideal gas Equation: PV=nRT has to be re-written to the Real Gas Equation. This leads to the following discussion questions:

(a) In the Real Gas Equation:   (P + an2/V2) (V - nb) = n RT a pressure correction factor was added. Why? (What assumptions of the kinetic theory breakdown under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure?)

(b) Also a volume correction factor was subtracted. Why? (What assumptions of the KMT breakdown under extreme conditions?)

 Another assumption of the kinetic molecular theory is that collisions between the molecules are elastic-that is, that the atoms or molecules of the gas never stick to one another by some type of intermolecular force.  This is not true at extreme conditions of overcrowding. When a molecule is about to strike the wall of its container, other molecules in the vicinity exert a slight attraction for the molecule and pull it away from the wall. As a result of the intermolecular forces, molecules strike the wall with less force than they would in the absence of intermolecular attractive forces. Therefore, in a real gas, the observed pressure is less than the predicted pressure by the ideal gas law and a pressure correction factor is added to account for this pressure loss.

Also a volume correction factor was subtracted. Why? (What assumptions of the KMT breakdown under extreme conditions?)

 The kinetic molecular theory and the ideal gas law are concerned with the volume available to the molecules to move about, not the volume of the molecules themselves. It is clear the volume occupied by the gas molecules is NOT negligible at high pressures (or extreme low temperatures. The available volume is less than the volume of the container. The volume the molecules occupy must be subtracted from the volume of the container to obtain the volume of free space the molecule can move.

A good multiple choice question is: under what conditions does ideal gas behavior break down?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module Six Part B: Discussion Question (2 points)

 

In the Real Gas Equation:†† (P + an2/V2) (V - nb) = n RT a pressure correction factor was added. Why? (What assumptions of the kinetic theory breakdown under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure?)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also a volume correction factor was subtracted. Why? (What assumptions of the KMT breakdown under extreme conditions?)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part C: Standard Conditions/Molar Volume-

Properties of gases are discussed. This includes the introduction to the concept of Gas pressure. Here is a summary:

1.     Gases have indefinite shape

2.     Gases can expand

3.     Gases can compress

4.     Gases have low density

5.     Gases mix completely with other gases in the same container.

Atmospheric Pressure is discussed in Section 8.4. The pressure that a gas exerts depends on how often and how hard these molecules strike the walls of the container:

1.  If the molecules collide more often, the gas pressure increases.

2.     If the molecules collide with more energy, the pressure increases.


fg11_01

Table 12.2 from another book lists the units of gas pressure under standard conditions:
fg11_T01

State standard conditions (STP) in three units of pressure (the last is your choice) and oC and K temperatures:

fg11_03

 _760__mmHg or _760__torre=  __1___atm = _29.9 in_  = _14.7 psi_= 101 kPa

 __0_oC   =    _273__K

 You should know the value of the gram molar volume constant to three significant figures. fg09_T01

Therefore you would put 22.4 in any of the following blanks: 

What are the values for the Molar Gas Volume Constant for the following gases:

 1 moleCO2 =__22.4__L CO2@STP         1 moleH2 =__22.4___L H2@STP

 1 moleN2 =__22.4___L N2@STP           1 moleO2 =__22.4___L O2@STP

Calculate the value of R in the Ideal Gas Equation at STP:

If you substitute the values of the Molar Gas Constant into the ideal gas equation (PV=nRT) you can calculate the value of the constant R:

PV  = nRT   (you must enter Kelvin temperatures-not Celsius)

(1 atm) (22.4 L) = (1 mole) R (273 K)

R = 0.08206 L atm/mol K

 R can include energy units such as Joules or calories:

Values for the gas constant R

Units

Value

L atm/mol K

0.08206

cal/mol K

1.987

J/mol K

8.314

m3 Pa/mol K

8.314

L torr/mol K

62.36

 

We usually use the first value: 0.08206 (or 0.0821) L atm/mol K in the calculation in Chapter 8. However, many times your pressure is not given in atmospheres and if you do not have the above table, you may have to make conversions of the units of pressure from one unit to another. Here are a few example problems:

05_01
These calculation may be in multiple choice questions.

Chapter 8 -Part C††† Standard Conditions/Molar Volume†††† 2 points

State standard conditions (STP) in three units of pressure (the last is your choice) and oC and K temperatures:

 

_____mm Hg or ______torre=______atm =_____†† ______(you write the unit too)

 

_____ oC†† =††† ______K

Are the values for the Molar Gas Volume Constant:

 

1 mole CO2 =________L CO2@STP†††††† 1 mole H2 =________L H2@STP

 

1 mole N2 =________L N2@STP††††††††††† 1 mole O2 =________L O2@STP

 

 

Module Six-Part C1: Gas Pressure Calculations††† 2 points

The average barometric pressure at an altitude of 10 km is 210 torre.

Express this pressure in:

(a)  Atmospheres

 

 

 

(b)  Bars

 

 

 

(c)  Kilopascals

 

 

 

(d)  In Hg

 

 

 

 

(e)  mmHg

 

 

 

 

Module Six-Part C2: Value of R††† 2 points

Given the Molar Gas Constant in Part C, Determine the value of R

in the ideal gas equation

(a)  using first atmospheres

 

 

 

 

 

(b)  Using torre

 



 

 

 

 

 

Part D: Gas Laws/Vocabulary-

In sections of another book 12.2-12.7 Variables affecting gas pressure are best described by the following figure:

fg11_04

For Part D you simply write a statement of the gas laws covered in chapter 8 section 8.5 Boyle's Law, Section 8.6 Charles Law-, Section 8.7 Gay-Lussacís Law , Section 8.9 Avogadroís Law is defined;Section 8.8 Combined Gas Law and Section 8.10 the Ideal Gas Equation is covered in Section 8.8.Daltonís law is covered in Section 8.11, while Vapor pressure Concept is covered in Section 8.12.

Here are the statements:

Boyleís Law (In words) Section 8.5 pages 225-228

The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure when the temperature remains constant.

V1P1=V2P2

Note the graphical relationship between Pressure and Volume:

fg11_06

Below is another set of worked examples not in your book:

05_02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Law (in words) ††††Section 8.6

The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the pressure remains constant.

V1=V2
T1††††† T2

Note the graphical relationship between Temperature and Volume:

fg11_07

Why does the first graph not interest the origin, while the second one does?

Here is another worked example not in your book:

 

 

Gay-Lussacís Law (in words) ††††Section 8.7

The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.

P1=P2
T1††††† T2
Note the graphical relationship between Temperature and Pressure:
fg11_08

It looks the same as Charles Law. Why?

Study Example 10.5 page 292 for a sample problem for Part E.You should try Problems #29-32 at the end of the chapter on page 308 for additional Part E type problems.

 

05_03

Daltonís Law of Partial Pressures (in words)Section 8.11

The total pressure of a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the individual pressure of each gas.

Ptotal =P1+ P2+ P3 + Ö

Define Vapor pressure: Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by the gaseous vapor above a liquid (usually in a closed container) when the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal.


††††††
fg11_09††††††††††††††††††fg11_10

 

 

.

 

Here are more examples of work Daltonís law application which are not in our book:

05_08

05_09

From Another book:

11_02_Table

 

Avogadroís Law (in words/formula) ††††Section 9.9

The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules (moles) if the pressure and temperature remain constant.

V1 =V2
n1†††††† n2

Avogadroís Law Calculation

Combined Gas Law Equation (write only the equation):

Derive the combined gas law from the Ideal Gas Equation: PV = nRT:

V1P1†† =†† V2P2
T1†††††††††† T2

 

 

 

Study example 10.6 pages 294-295 for a sample Part E Problem.

Work examples at the end of the chapter Page 308 #33-42

Ideal Gas Equation (write only the equation): Section 8.10 McMurry

Rearrange to for the Ideal gas Equation:

PV = nRT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8 Part D Gas Laws†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 4 points

 

State:

 

Boyleís Law (In words and formula) (See Section 9.2)

 

 

 

 

Charles Law (in words and formula) (See Section 9.2)

 

 

 

 

Daltonís Law of Partial pressures (in words and formula) (See Section 9.5)

 

 

 

 

 

Gay-Lussacís Law (in words and formula) (not in McMurry)

 

 

 

 

 

Avogadroís Law (in words and formula) (Section 9.2)

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Gas Law Equation (write only the equation)

 

 

 

 

Ideal Gas Equation (write only the equation) (See Section 9.3)

 

 

 

 

Define Vapor Pressure (See Section 10.8):

 

 

 

 

Grahamís Law of Diffusion and Effusion-Section 9.7

 

 

 

Chapeter 8Part E Gas Law Problems††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 14 points

Boyleís Law

1.A sample of a gas has a volume of 100 mL when measured at 25 oC and

760 mmHg.What volume will the gas occupy at 25 oC and 380 mmHg?

 

 

 

Charles Law(

. The volume of a gas is 100.0 mL at 27 oC.At what temperature in degrees Celsius would the volume of the gas be 200.0 mL, assuming the pressure remains constant.

 

 

 

 

Gay-Lussacís Law

3.A sample of gas occupies 100.0 L at 710.0 torre and 27 oC.Calculate the pressure in torre if the temperature is changed to 127 oC while the volume remains constant.

 

 

 

 

Daltonís Law of Partial Pressures

4. Calculate the dry volume in milliliters of 200 mL of hydrogen gas collected over water at 25 oC at 760 torre pressure with the temperature remaining constant.(The partial pressure of water vapor at 25 oC is 23.8 torre.)

 

 

 

 

Avogadroís Law

5.†† A 1.5 mole sample of a gas occupies 25.0 L at 758 torre and 27oC. Calculate the Volume of the gas, if more molecules are injected into the vessel increasing the moles to 2.5 moles, provided the pressure and the temperature do not change.

 

 

 

 

Combined Gas Laws

6. A100.0 mL sample of air is collected at 25oC and 774 mmHg. What is the volume at STP?

 

 

 

 

Ideal Gas Equation

7. Calculate the number of moles of nitrogen gas in a 5.00 L cylinder at 27 oC and 4 atm pressure. R = 0.0821 L atm/ K mole )

 

 

 

 

How much does this volume of gas weigh?

 

 

 

 

05_05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Part F: Enthalpy Change with Phase Change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8 Section 8.15

Part D: Enthalpy change with Phase Change/Ice Cube Problem††

Phase Change (3 points):

1. Calculate the amount of heat necessary to melt 27.0 grams of ice at 0oC, if the heat of fusion of ice is 333 J/g.

 

 

 

If I had the same amount of water at 100oC, calculate the amount of heat required to boil 27.0 grams of water if the heat of vaporization of water is 2256 J/g?

 

 

 

 

How much heat is required to raise the temperature of the 27 grams of water at 0oC to 100oC, if the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/goC

 

 

 

 

Ice Cube Problem (2 points):

 

If 27.0 grams of ice at 0oC is added to an insulated cup of water containing 123 grams of water at 50oC. What will be the final thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the water/ice mixture assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings?