Earth Science 11th Edition Vocabulary Chapter 10

By Reshawn Brown (GLY 1001 Student North Campus Fall 2006)


  1. accretionary wedge (p. 296) – A large wedge shaped mass of sediment that accumulates in subduction zones. Here sediments is scraped from the subducting oceanic plate and accreted to the overriding crustal block


  1. active continental margin (p. 296) – Usually narrow and consisting of highly deformed sediments. They occur where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted beneath the margin of a continent 


  1. anticline (p.286) – A fold in sedimentary strata resembling an arch


  1. basin (p.287) – A circular downfolded structure.


  1. brittle failure (brittle deformation) (p.286) – Deformation that involves the fracturing of rock. Associated with rocks near the surface.


  1. deformation (p.284) – The process by which water vapor is changed directly to a solid without passing through the liquid state


  1. dip-slip fault( 288) – A fault in which the movement is parallel to the fault.


  1. dome (p.287) – A roughly circular upfolded structure similar to an anticline


  1. ductile deformation (p.286) – A type of solid state flow that produces a change in the size and shape of a rock body without fracturing . Occurs at depths where temperatures and confining pressures are high


  1. fault (p.288) – A  break in a rock mass along which movement has occurred


  1. fault-block mountains (p.301) – A mountain formed by the displacement of rock along a fault


  1. fault scarp (p.288) – A cliff created by movement along a fault. I t represents the exposed surface of the fault prior to modification by weathering and erosion


  1. fold ( p. 285) -  A bent rock layer or series of layers that were originally horizontal and subsequently deformed


  1. graben (p. 288) -  A valley formed by the downward displacement of a fault-bounded block


  1. gravitational collapse ( p. 304) – The gradual subsidence of mountains caused by lateral spreading of weak material located deep within these structures


  1. horst (p. 289) – An elongate, uplifted block of crust bounded by faults


  1.  isostacy (p. 303) – The concept that Earth’s crust is floating in gravitational balance upon the material of the mantle.


  1. isotatic adjustment (p. 303) – The process of establishing a new level of gravitational equilibrium


  1. joint (p. 294) – A fracture in rock along which thee has been no movement


  1. monocline (p. 287) -  A one limited flexure in strata. The strata are unusually flatlying  or very getly dipping on both sides of the monocline


  1. normal fault (p. 288) – A fault in which the rock above the fault plane has moved down relative to the rock below


  1. orogenesis (p.294) – The processes that collectively result in the formation of mountains


  1. passive continental margin (p. 296) – Margins that consists of continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise.


  1. reverse fault ( p. 291) – A fault in which the material above the fault plane moves up in relation to the material below.


  1. strike-slip fault ( p. 291) -  A fault along which the movement is horizontal


  1. syncline (p.286) – A linear downfold in sedimentary strata; the opposite of anticline


  1. terrane (p. 298) – A  crustal block bounded by faults, whose geologic history is distinct from the histories of adjoining crustal blocks


  1. thrust fault (p. 291) – A low-angle reverse fault


  1. transform fault (p. 291) – A major strike-slip fault that cuts through the lithosphere and accommodates motion between two plates