Pathway 4: Chapter 1 Homework/Study Pack
                   Sample Chapter 1 Exam



Part A: Significant Figures Answers
Part B:
Math with Significant Figures Answers
Part C.
Scientific Notation Answers
Part D.
Metric System & Metric Prefixes Answers
Part E.
Metric System Equivalences Answers
Part F.
Unit Analysis/Dimensional Analysis Answers Pretest #2 Ans2 Online Site
Part S. Scientific Method
Part V.
Chapter 1 Vocabulary Answers
Part M. Multiple Choice
Part Z. Conceptual Chemistry Spotlight: Chapter 1: Global Climate Change

Projects Required (Chapter 1):

Project #2 Measurement via Gasoline Project (due August 19th)
Project #24. The Controlled Experiment Demonstration (due June 19th)



Part A: Significant figures    Sample Exam Answers  Answers


         For a very detailed Explanetion of Significant Figues in the Laboartory:
          Significant Figures Handout (6 pages)(click to download WIORD .doc file)
                                                         or View online:




  Significant Digit Animation:

       John Suchocki Video:
        1.6 b.  Scientific Figures (Conceptual Chemistry 5th Appendix B)
           Video #CO106c (8:04 Minutes)

           Mobile/Cell Phone Link:




Path 4 Part A Sample Exam    Sample Exam   Answers:                               

In the blank, state the number of significant figures in each of the following measurements:

____1.  0.05 mL                                                                                 

____2.  250.0 cm                                                                               

____3.   456,000,000 people                  

_____4.  1000 g

_____5.  0.00006500 moles

_____6. 0.00200 kg

_____7. 50 seconds

_____8. 50.0 Seconds

_____9. 50.00 Seconds

_____10. 0.05 Seconds


Part B: Rounding Off & Arithmetic Operations of Sig. Figures Answers











Part B: Rounding Off & Arithmetic Operations of Sig. Figures Answers

Round off the following numbers to three significant figures:


(1) 1.598 x 106 =   _____________   


(2) 0.000 000 484 500 = _________________


(3)  0.01045  =  _______________


(4)  1.98754 X10-7 =  ________________


Perform the following addition/subtraction/multiplication/division operations and express the answer using the proper units and significant figures:


(5)    4        mL                                                                                                                                               

      16.3     mL                                                                                                                                             

 +     0.953 mL




(6)   376.5  mL

     -   76     mL




(7)    16.5 cm

     X   1.7 cm




(8)        12.0  g χ 1.00 g =


           12.0  g / 1.00 g =




(9)  9.2 cm  X  9.20 cm  X  3.14 X  22.65cm  =





(10)  (5398 cm3 – 2060.2 cm3) /16.8 cm3/sphere  =


              Path 4 Chapter 2 Part C: Exponential Numbers and Scientific Notation Answers




                       John Suchocki Video:

                            Video 1.6 a.  Scientific Notation (Conceptual Chemistry 5th Appendix A)
                            Video #CO106b (7:31 Minutes);
Mobile/Cell Phone Link:


 Path 4 Chapter 2 Part C: Exponential Numbers and Scientific Notation Answers



Express the following ordinary numbers in scientific notation (If greater than three significant figures, round off to three significant figures:


(1)   1,010,100,000,000, 000  = ________________   


(2)   0.000 000 000 000 019   =  ________________  



(3)   456,789   = _________________



(4)   0.0001198 = _____________



(5)    1,000,000 = ______________



 (6)   0.000200  = ______________



(7) Express the following  products in exponential form


2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 = ______________



(8) and use your calculator to calculate the value:


Value = ___________________


(9)  Express the following powers often notation:


1 x 100 = ______          1 X 101=______     1 x 10-1 =  _________



(10) Express the ordinary number in scientific notation in three significant figures:


60,230,000,000,000,000,000,000 =  _______________________


 Path 4 Part D: Metric System Basic Units/Numerical Prefixes Answers    





               John Suchocki Video:
                       Video 1.6 d.  Metric Prefixes (Conceptual Chemistry 5th Appendix B)
                       Video #CO106c (7.10 Minutes)

                       Mobile/Cell Phone Link:


Path 4 Chapter 1 Part D: Metric System Basic Units/Numerical Prefixes

Fill in the blank with the proper basic unit or metric prefix, then in the parenthesis put the unit’s or
 prefix’s abbreviation (Use table from Chapter 3): 

      ____________(    )    1. Basic unit of length in the metric system


      ____________(    )    2. Basic unit of volume in the metric system


      ____________(    )    3.  Basic unit of mass in the metric system (not SI)


      __________(    )   4. Metric prefix which means 1/1000 of a unit


      __________(    )    5. Metric prefix which means 1000 units


      __________(    )    6. Metric prefix which means 1/100 of a unit


     __________(    )    7.  Metric prefix which means 1/10 of a unit


     __________(    )    8.  Metric prefix which means 1,000,000 units


     __________(    )    9.  Metric prefix which means 1/1000000 ( 10-6) of a unit


     __________(    )  10. Metric Prefix which means 1/1000000000 ( 10-9) of a unit


     Metric Prefix Table:


    Metric System Animation:



                    Path 4 Chapter 1 Part E Metric Unit Factors Answers        










Path 4 Chapter 2 Part E Metric Unit Factors

Fill in the blank with the number which completes the metric unit factor:


(1)     __________mg = 1.000 g


(2)     __________mg = 1.000 kg                  


(3)     __________mL = 1.000 L                    


(4)     __________cm = 1.000 m                   


(5)    ___________mL = 1.00 cm3                


(6)   ____________km = 1.000 m


(7) ____________ g  =  1 kg


(8) ____________ cm = 1 dm


(9) ___________  ΅L = 1 L


(10) __________  nm = 1 m

(11)  Write a unit equation for each of the following metric equivalents:


(a)   M and Tm                (b)   L and mL               (c)  Bytes and Gbytes

______________     (b) ____________        (c)  ________________

Path 4 Chapter 1 Part F: Unit Analysis Problems
                Sample Problem  Answers Pretest #2 Ans2 Online Site
                  Step by Step Unit Analysis Web Site:
Dimensional Analysis Animation (Shockwave Plug in Required)






      Online Dimensional Analysis Web Site & Interactive DA Calculator:


John Suchocki Video:
                       Video 1.6 d c.  Unit Analysis
                       Video # CO106a (5:26 Minutes)

                       Mobile/Cell Phone Link:



Path 4 Chapter 1 Part F: Unit Analysis Problems  Answers Pretest #2 Ans2 Online Site
 (When you work you must show dimensional analysis sequence)

Online Dimensional Analysis Web Site & Interactive DA Calculator:

Apply the unit analysis method of problem solving to each of the following

(If greater than three significant figures round off to three significant figures):

Problem 1

 An oxygen molecule travels 975 mi/hr at room temperature. There are 5280 ft = 1 mi; 12 in = 1 ft,
2.54 cm = 1 in, 1.6 km = 1 mi, and 3600 sec = 1 hr. What is the velocity in meters per second?


Problem 2

 If one gram is equal to 15.4 grains. How many 5.00 grain aspirin tablets may be made from 1.00 kilogram of aspirin?




Problem 3

 A parsec is the distance light travels in 3.26 years. Given the velocity of light, 3.00 x 108 m/sec,
 how many kilometers does light travel in one parsec?




Problem 4

 I have 1400 radio programs I want to put on an Apple Ipod. Each program requires 5 megabytes of disk space.
 If there are 1024 megabytes in a gigabyte. How many gigabytes of disk space do I need minimum to store
 all my programs on the IPod. The Mini-Ipod holds only 4 gigabytes of recordings, could I use a mini for my project?






Step by Step Answers to Problems #1-#4:

John Suchocki Video:
1.6 c.  Unit Conversion (Conceptual Chemistry 5th Appendix B)
           Video #CO106c (5.26 Minutes)

           Mobile/Cell Phone Link:



Additional Videos Online Menu:


Additional Unit Analysis Problems


Problem 5
Find the mass in grains of a 325 milligram aspirin tablet.
(Given: 1.00 g = 15.4 grains)






Problem 6
Insurance statistics state that a person loses 8 minutes of average life for each cigarette
 smoked. If there are 20 cigarettes in a pack and the average cost of cigarette is
 $5.00 per pack over the next 25 years, how many years of average life would
 a person lose for smoking 1.5 packs a day for 25 years?






Problem 7
What is the density of water in lb/ft3, if the density of water at 25oC is 1.00 g/ml?
[Hint: There are 2.54 cm = 1 in (or 16.48 cm3 = 1 in3); 454 g = 1 lb ]







Problem 8
Calculate the velocity of a car traveling car traveling 65 miles/hr in ft/sec.



More Additional Unit Analysis Problems

Problem 9

How many milligrams does a 0.750 carat diamond weigh?
(Hint: 1 carat = 0.200 g)







Problem 10
Diamond has a density of 3.513 g/cm3. The mass of a diamond is often measured in carats,
  1 carat equaling 0.200 g. What is the volume of a 1.50 carat diamond?








Problem 11
Liquor used to be sold in fifths. A fifth is one fifth of a gallon. A gallon is 128 fluid ounces.
 Today liquor is sold in bottle sizes of 750 ml to equate to the old fifth. If there are
946 ml in a quart, calculate the number of milliliters in a fifth. How many milliliters
 difference is there in the bottling?









Setup and Answers to Problems #1-#12:


The Ultimate Word Problem with too many numbers which are not needed:


The True Story
On July 23, 1983, Air Canada Flight 143 was flying at an altitude of 26,000 ft from Montreal to Edmonton.
Warning buzzers sounded in the cockpit of the Boeing 767. One of the world's larger planes was now
a glider-the plane had ran out of fuel! Like all Boeing 767s, the plane had a sophisticated fuel gauge,
 but it was not working properly. However, the plane was still allowed to fly, because there is an alternate
method for determining fuel. The Mechanics have a dip stick, calibrated in centimeters, and translated
into volume in liters. The Mechanics calculated the three tanks had a total of 7682L of fuel. Pilots always
 calculate fuel quantities in mass, because they need to know the total mass of the plane before takeoff.
 Air Canada pilots had always calculated the mass in pounds, but the new 767s fuel consumption was
given in kilograms. This involved using the fuel's density to convert 7682 L to a mass in kilograms,
so that the pilot could calculate the mass of fuel that had to be added. The First Officer of the plane
asked the Mechanic for the conversion factor to calculate volume-to-mass conversion, and the
 Mechanic replied "1.77". Using that number, the officer and the Mechanic calculated that 4917 L of fuel
 should be added. The required amount for the trip was 22,300 kg. The mechanic never gave the First Office
r the conversion units which was for pounds per liter, not kg/liter as the First Officer assumed. The rest of the
story is that the Pilot could not make it to the nearest airport, Winnipeg, but to a little town Gimli which
had a former Royal Canadian Air Force runway converted to a race track. For 30 minutes the plane glided
 to Gimil and managed to land.

Now the Problem 12
The Gimli Glider was a Boeing 767 that ran out of fuel. Read the story above, then verify that the ground crew
should have added 20,163 L of fuel instead 4916. The crucial piece of information is the density of the fuel.
The crew used 1.77, but did not recognize the units were pounds per liter. To solve the problem, you need
first to find the density in units of kilograms per liter (Hint: 1 lb = 453.6 grams).

Problem Reworded


Problem 12

12. On July 23, 1983 Air Canada Flight 143, flying at 26,000 feet from Montreal to Edmonton,
 ran out of fuel because the first officer asked the mechanic for the conversion factor of
 mass to volume at Montreal. The mechanic gave the first officer the answer 1.77
with no units. The plane had 7682 L of fuel at Montreal. The pilot knew he needed
 22,300 kg of fuel to make the trip. The mechanic's answer of 1.77 was
 pounds per liter not kilograms per liter caused the error such that only
4917 L of fuel was added. If there are 2.205 pounds in a kilogram, how many liters
 of fuel were needed for the trip? How many liters minimum of fuel should
have been added at Montreal before takeoff?

 Setup and Answers to Problems #1-#12:








Path 4 Chapter 1 Part S: The Scientific Method

Good Flow Chart:

The scientific method consists of:

  1. Observation of an odd, unusual, interesting event.
  2. Developing a hypothesis, a tentative proposal of a scientific principle to explain the observation.
  3. Developing a plan for making observations under CONTROLLED conditions, conducting a planned experiment.
  4. Refining the hypothesis after analysis of collected experimental data.
  5. Test refined hypothesis with additional experimentation or altered experimentation.
  6. If sufficient evidence is gathered by repeated experimentation, the hypothesis, if of a measurable mathematical relationship becomes a natural law. Otherwise it remains a hypothesis.
  7. A theory is proposed to explain in a broad sense a collection of natural laws and hypothesis. The theory gives the best explanation at that point for a grouping of natural laws and hypothesis

 Theories are seldom finished and are generally refined to a higher level of confidence as new data and better observation tools are developed. As an example, the Greeks developed the first atomic theory and John Dalton refined the theory as a hypothesis which has continued to be refined into the current state of modern atomic theory. The scientific method is never a finished process but one that is continuously improving the explanation of nature’s behavior as methods and instruments improve.



Simple Scientific Method Steps (Corwin 7th)

Step 1: Perform a planned experiment, make observations, and record data.

Step 2: Analyze the data and propose a tentative hypothesis to explain the experimental observations.

Step 3: Conduct additional experiments to test the hypothesis. If the evidence supports the initial proposal, the hypothesis may become a scientific theory

•          After sufficient evidence, a hypothesis becomes a scientific theory.

•          A natural law states a measurable relationship.

Corwin’s Simple Scientific Method Flow Chart:

Scientific Method Four Steps (Hein 15th)


Learning Chemistry

•         Different people learn chemistry differently.

•         What do you see in the picture?

•         Some people see a vase on
a dark background; some people see two faces.


            What Do You See?    A Vase     or                Two Faces


Chapter 1 Part S: The Nine Penny Problem (Background)

Over the years the United States Ming has changed the ratio of different metals used in making the various coins.  The last change for the penny occurred in 1982. It is estimated that there are 200 billion pennies in current circulation.

Following is a brief chronology of the metal composition of the one-cent coin (penny):


Current Penny:




Copper-Plated Zinc: 2.5% Cu, Balance: Zn 97.5 %

Mass:  2.500 g

Diameter: 0.750 in., 19.05 mm

Thickness: 1.55 mm  Edge: Plain



In 1990, United States Representative Jim Kolbe (R-AZ) introduced the Price Rounding Act of 1989, HR 3761 to eliminate the penny in cash transactions, rounding to the nearest nickel.[3] In 2001, Kolbe introduced the Legal Tender Modernization Act of 2001, HR 5818,[4] and in 2006, he introduced the Currency Overhaul for an Industrious Nation (COIN) Act, HR 5818.[5] While the bills received much popular support from the public, and therefore from their representatives, the bills were not made to law when Congress adjourned.[6] There are public pressures on many Representatives to reintroduce these bills to the legislature. One such example is the constituency of the 2nd District of Colorado, represented by Jared Polis.[7]

Arguments for elimination




Arguments for preservation




   Nine Penny Problem with The Two Pan Balance:


You have nine pennies. Eight of the pennies are post 1982 dated, therefore they weight 2.500 grams eash.

You have one  penny with a 1974 mint date and it weighs 3.100 grams.

You need to design and write the directions for an experiment on how you would use the above balance to find 100% of the time, the heavier 1974 penny:

1.Write the directions below as steps Only what is the number of weighing needed in your this procedure below:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5:

Step 6:

Step 7:

Step 8:

How many weighing would use use maximum to sove the problem:

One         Two           Three         Four          Five


2. Now rewrite the experiment so that it will take a different Number of weighings

Write the directions below as steps Only what is minimal needed) in you procedure:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5:

Step 6:

Step 7:

Step 8:

How many weighing would use use maximum to sove the problem:

One      Two     Three   Four     Five

3. Now try to rewrite the experiment so that it will take a different Number of weighings than #1 or #2









Path 4: Chapter 2 Part S: Scientific Method Sample Test

A. State Three Steps in the Scientific Method according by the Corwin Text:




Fill in the words on the Corwin Simple Scientific Method Flow Chart


  B. State Four Steps in the Scientific Method according by the Hein Text:






Fill in the words on the Hein Simple Scientific Method Flow Chart


Problem Solving

•          Connect the dots using only four straight lines.

Experiment until
you find a solution


•          Connect the dots using only four straight lines.

•          Experiment until you find a solution.

•          Did you have to use five straight lines?

•          No matter which dot we start with, we still need five lines.












Path 4 Chapter 1 Part V: Chapter 1 Vocabulary
The following Chapter Vocabulary terms may be found at the end of Chapter 1:
Summer of Terms page 19.

Fill in the blank(s) with the word that best fits the definition (Chapter 1
1. ___________________ A type of research that focuses on developing applications of knowledge
 gained through basic research.

2. ___________________ A type of research that leads us to a greater understanding of how the natural world operates.

3. ___________________ The study of matter and the transformations it can undergo.

4. ___________________Something agreed upon by competent observers as being true.

5. ___________________ Anything that has mass and occupies space.

6. ___________________ An area where we engineer materials by manipulating individual atoms or molecules.

_______________________A testable explanation for an observable phenomenon.


8. ___________________ A formal statement of a scientific hypothesis that has been
 repeatedly tested and supported by experimental data. Also known as a principle.

___________________ A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations within the natural world

Additional vocabulary terms not in the Chapter 1 Summary:
10___________________A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.

11. ___________________ is a systematic investigation of nature and requires proposing an explanation for the results of an experiment in the form of a general principle


Part Z. Conceptual Chemistry Spotlight: Chapter 1: Global Climate Change