Path 4: Chapter 3: Elements of Chemistry Study Pack

Part A:   Chemical and Physical Properties Answers Section 3.1
Part A1:
Chemical and Physical Change   Answers  Section 3.1
Part B:  
Elements and Symbols  Answers  Section 3.2 
Part C:   
Element Classification   Answer  Section 3.3
Part D:   Compounds and Chemical Formulas  
Answers Section 3.4
Part E:  
Binary Molecular Compounds   Answers  Section 3.5
Part E1:
Polyatomic Ions   Answers  Section 3.5
Part E2
Ternary Ionic Compounds   Answers Section 3.5
Part E3: Binary/Ternary Acids   Answers  See Study Guide/not in Chapter
Part F:  
Binary Ionic Compounds   Answers Section 3.5
Part G: 
Matter Chart  Answers  Section 3.7
Part P: 
Periodic Properties   Answer  Section 3.3

Part A: Chemical/Physical/Nuclear Properties (Section 3.1) 

Chapter 3 Part A: Chemical & Physical Properties

1. Define: Physical Property:


2. Chemical Property:


3. Classify each of the following as a chemical or physical property:

a.       Color                      ________________

b.       Odor                      _________________

c.       Reaction with water:  ____________________

d.       Solubility in water:      ____________________

e.       Melting point:             ____________________

f.        Boiling point:              ____________________

g.       Sublimation Point:      ____________________

h.       Reaction with oxygen  ____________________

i.         Density:                         ____________________

j.         Solid state:                       ___________________

k.       Reaction producing a Gas:        _____________________

l.         Conductor of electricity:           _____________________

m.     Water is insoluble in gasoline: _____________________

n.       Good conductor of heat:          _____________________

o.       Two chemical when mixed gives of heat: ___________________

p.       Appearance at Room Temperature:         ___________________

q.       An element turns black when heated       ___________________

r.        Silver tarnishes in Air           ____________________

s.        An element is radioactive: ____________________



Part A1: Chemical/Physical/Nuclear Change (3.1) 

Chapter 3 Part A1: Chemical & Physical Change

State whether each of the following is a physical change,  a chemical change, or a nuclear change:

__________________1. Electricity decomposes water.


__________________ 2. Methanol dissolves in gasoline


__________________ 3. Dry ice pellets disappear


__________________ 4. Iron oxidizes to rust


__________________ 5. Bromine vaporizes into a reddish-brown gas


__________________ 6. Uranium-235 splits into two small elements when bombarded

                                         with neutrons in an atomic bomb.

___________________7. Copper conducts heat


___________________8. Baking soda fizzes in vinegar


___________________9. Grinding sugar crystals into a powder


__________________10. Sodium reacts with chlorine gas


__________________11. Adding air to a tire


__________________12. Slicing an orange into wedges


__________________13. Hydrogen atoms fuse into helium atoms in a hydrogen bomb


__________________14.” Dry ice”(Solid Carbon dioxide) vaporizes into a gas at room

                                           temperature and sea level pressure

__________________15. Natural Gas burs with a blue flame




Part B:   Elements and Symbols (Section 3.2)







Chapter 3 Part B: Elements/Symbols





 Element Identification Homework Click on Element for Answer

Identify each of the following elements chalk board representation:

b_chalk.gif      cl_chalk.gif

1. Element: _______________Symbol:_____   2.Element: _______________Symbol:_____

h_chalk.gif      na_chalk.gif

3. Element: _______________Symbol:_____   4.Element: _______________Symbol:_____

o_chalk.gif         al_chalk.gif

5. Element: _______________Symbol:_____   6.Element: _______________Symbol:_____

fe_chalk.gif         as_chalk.gif

7. Element: _______________Symbol:_____   8.Element: _______________Symbol:_____

f_chalk.gif    cu_chalk.gif

9. Element: _______________Symbol:_____   10.Element: _______________Symbol:_____

Part C: Element Classification Section 3.3


Part C: Element Classification Sample Test


Part D:  Compounds and Chemical Formulas (Sect 3.4)









Chapter 3 Part E: Binary Molecular Compounds   Section 3.5


 The required Online Binary Covalent Molecular Homework

The web site is:
 C: Binary Molecular Names:

C1: Binary Molecular Formulas:



Here is a brief tutorial for Part E: 


 Both elements are nonmetals attached by covalent bonds.  These bonds may be single, double, or triple covalent.  Due to the covalent bonding there are many ratios of the same two elements making many different compounds.  For this reason, the chemist states how many atoms of each element is present in the chemical formula in the formal name of the compound.

The element that is shown first in the chemical formula is written first using the proper prefix to indicate how may atoms of that element is contained in the compound.  If there is only one atom of that element it is often found without the prefix mono.  If you leave the prefix off then it is understood that you mean mono.

The element which is written second in the chemical formula is written second in the chemical name, but in addition to the prefix indicating how many, the suffix of the element’s name is changed to -ide

 carbon becomes carbide                             chlorine becomes chloride

sulfur becomes sulfide                                oxygen becomes oxide

hydrogen becomes hydride                        nitrogen becomes nitride 

Therefore, the following formulas of binary compounds would be spoken:

CCl4                 carbon tetrachloride                                                     

SO2                  sulfur dioxide

CO2                 carbon dioxide

N2O3                dinitrogen trioxide

 BH3                 boron trihydride

We use common names for NH3, and H2O. What would be their correct binary molecular names?

 Methane, CH4, is the organic name for CH4, what would its inorganic name be?





Chapter 3: Part E    Binary Molecular Compounds     

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:

Homework Packet Sample test: answer on grading outline

1.    CO       ____________________


2.    SO3     _____________________


3.    N2O5   _____________________


4.    N2O7   _____________________


5.    N2O     _____________________


6.    Phosphorus pentachloride     _________


7.    Boron trifluoride                     _________


8.    Carbon dioxide                      _________


9.    Sulfur Trioxide                       _________


10.  Carbon Tetrachloride            _________


Chapter 3: PART F:   BINARY (IONIC) COMPOUNDS  Section 3.5

       Most Common Ionic Charges for Monatomic Ions


The element written first in either the name or the formula is a metal.  The element written second is a nonmetal.  Salts are metallic and nonmetallic ionic compounds.  There are no molecules of salts-just macro ionic lattices.  Name the metallic element. 

If the metallic element has more than one ionic state, write a ROMAN NUMERAL after the element’s name (In Parenthesis) to indicate which charge state the metallic element is using to form the compound.


Drop the suffix off the nonmetal’s name and add -ide which indicates the salt is binary

(exceptions: cyanide & hydroxide which are polyatomic ions).

No prefixes are used to indicate how many atoms are present in the formula. 


NaCl                Sodium Chloride (table salt)
 Al2O3              Aluminum oxide
FeS                  Iron(II) sulfide (Note: No space between the metal and the parenthesis)
 Fe2O              Iron(III) oxide (rust)




To write the formula from the name of the salt use the following procedure:

 (a) Write the symbols (or formulas for radicals) of the ions represented
For Example: 
Calcium nitride

 (a)                                Ca          N


(b)  Use the periodic chart to write the ion charge of each element (or polyatomic ion) as superscripts: 

                           Ca+2            N-3

  (c ) Find the L.C.M. (Least common multiple) of the positive and negative charge.

 The LCM is the smallest number that both charges will decide into evenly.  The LCM is  the total electrons transferred.  Therefore, it represents the total  positive charge created by the metallic ions and the total negative charge created by the nonmetallic ions.  This may  be proved by drawing the dot structure of the compound showing all electrons transferred.

 The LCM of +2 and -3 is 6,   therefore 6 e-1 are transferred creating a total positive charge of +6, and the total negative charge of -6

         --> 6e-1-->
Ca+2                     N-3

 (d   (d) Divide the LCM by the positive charge, this dividend will represent the subscript behind the metallic ion in the formula.

+6 divided by +2 = 3; therefore half of the formula is:    Ca3Nx

 (e)  Divide the LCM by the negative charge, this dividend will represent the number of nonmetallic ions in the formula.

-6 divided by -3 = 2; therefore the other half of the formula is:   Ca3N2          


Example:           Potassium phosphide

 Write Symbols and the Charges:

                   K+1     P -3

   LCM:    3

        Balance the chemical formula:





F. Binary Ionic Names:


F. Binary Ionic Formulas:






Chapter 3: Part F   Binary Ionic Compounds  Section 3.5  

Using a periodic chart, write the names or the balanced formulas for the following compounds depending on whether the formula or the name is given:


1.   Copper II phosphide                _________ (Cupric phosphide)


2.    Iron III Oxide (rust)                  _________  (Ferric Oxide)


3.    Lead IV sulfide                        _________  (Plumbic sulfide)


4.    Sodium chloride                      _________


5.    Tin II fluoride (in toothpaste)   _________  (Stannous Fluoride)


6.   MgCl2        ________________________


7.    NiF2         ________________________


8.   K3N          ________________________


9.   Al2O3       ________________________


10. CuBr         ________________________




Chapter 3: Part E1 Polyatomic Ions Section 3.5



From Chapter 6 Corwin (7th) (Chapter 5 Hill), Chapter 6 Hein (14th)Monoatomic Anions or Cations can be predicted the position the element resides on the periodic chart, if the ion come from a Representative Element (IA-VIIIA) or by its name if it is a transitional metal with several different charges. Below is Corwin (7th) Figure 6.3 demonstrating common cations and anions:

                              Periodic Table of Selected Ions

Note the charges for groups IA, IIA, IIIA, VA, VIA, VIIIA. From book to book, the charges on the transitional metals will vary

Almost all chemistry textbooks have sections dedicated to polyatomic ions and include a list of common ions.

What is a polyatomic ion?

A group of atoms bound together (covalent bonds) that bears an overall negative or positive charge.

Corwin (7th) suggests that you use flash cards listing the name on one side and the formula with its charge on the other to aide your memorization of these formulas. Most chemistry teachers require you to know some of the common polyatomic ions by the end of the course whether it is from repetition of use with a help table or from memory from the first day of introduction. Below are tables from various chemistry books used:

Polyatomic Ion Charts from Textbooks
Table 3.2      Corwin: Table 7.03
Table 2.5      Tillery: Table 9.3
Table 3.1             Hill: Table 5.04

Here is a sample polyatomic ion table:

Hill’s Table 5.4 (and Hill suggest for you to memorize the entire table):

 After you start memorizing, during the course the formulas may be swimming in you head and the charges too. To write balance Ternary Ionic Compounds, you must be able to write the formula and the charge of each polyatomic ion required.

Corwin suggests there is only one (Hill has two) common polyatomic Cation(s) and both end in ium suffix. He notes most of the Anions have an –ate suffix, while a few have ite, and two have –ide in their name. How do we accomplish this list?

Knowing dot structures of polyatomic ions (Corwin Chapter 12 section 12.5), and some keen observations you can boil it down to six questions:

1.     What is the formula for the –ate polyatomic ion?

2.     What is the charge on –ate polyatomic ion?

3.     What happens when you attach hydrogen atom(s) to the polyatomic

     2- and 3- anions?

4. What does ite mean?

5.     How do the hypo- and per- prefixes apply to polyatomic ions?

6.     What are the two –ide polyatomic ions and two -ium positive Anions?


So: it is time for you to discover, what I saw over 50 years ago. It is not in any textbook. The books just say know or memorize these tables. Go to:

When you go to the site above (which looks like the image below), click on the X for each polyatomic ion and note if the # of oxygens is three or four in the formula.



To expose the threes and the fours in the lower left hand corner (Taylor’s ¾ rule) click the numbers 0,1…8,9 Border three rule, then 1,2..5,6 in the box of six rule. Also do the 0,1…7,8 Transitional O4 Rule.


Taylor’s ¾ rule is summarized at:

Then do the same for the box just to the right of Taylor’s ¾ Rule, and discover Taylor’s Charge Rule.

Taylor’s Charge Rule is summarized at:

The story behind how your instructor related the periodic table to a long list of polyions, read the abstract for his talk at 2YC3:

E: Polyatomic Ion Names Homework:   

E1. Polyatomic Ion Formulas:


In chemistry, a ternary compound is a compound containing three different elements. An example of this is sodium phosphate, Na3PO4. The sodium ion has a charge of 1+ and the phosphate ion has a charge of 3-. Therefore, three sodium ions are needed to balance the charge of one phosphate ion. Another example of a ternary compound is calcium carbonate . In naming and writing the formulae for ternary compounds, we follow rules that are similar to binary compounds.(CaCO3).

Site that uses least common multiple balance method:

Sites (You-tubes) that use the crossing method(UGH):


Another You-Tube:

Chapter 3: Part E2    Ternary Ionic Compounds    Section 3.5   

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:


1.   Na2CO3       _____________________


2.   K2SO4           _____________________


3.   (NH4)3PO4    _____________________


4.   Ca(ClO3)2     _____________________


5.   CuNO3            _____________________


6.   Aluminum Hydroxide          ____________


7.   Ammonium carbonate        ____________


8.   Sodium Hypochlorite          ____________


9.   Magnesium Nitrate              ____________


10.  Iron III sulfite                       _____________


F: Ternary Ionic Compound Names Homework:    

F1. Ternary Ionic Compound Formulas:



Chapter 3 Part E3 Binary/Ternary Acids (See Study Guide below)

What is an acid?

A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. Inorganic formulas of acids have ionizable hydrogen(s) written first in the formula.

      Strong Acids               Weak Acids

Strong acids ionize 100% in a water solution, while Weak Acids ionize
less than 5% in a water solution

There are Binary/Ternary Acid online homeworks for your practice for M-4 Part G:

G: Binary/Ternary Acid Names:

G1: Binary/Ternary Acid Names: 

( Chapter 6 Bishop Sections 6.3-6.4 )give you instructions for naming and writing formulas of acids. );
 (Chapter 6 Corwin 7th covers binary acids in section 6.8; while section 6.9 covers ternary acids.) (Hein 14th covers acids in section 6.6

A brief tutorial for names and formulas of acids follows:

If hydrogen is written first in a chemical formula, there is two ways to name the compound
. As a pure molecular compound or as an aqueous acid:

If the compound is a pure molecular compound then you name it just as if it were an ionic compound:

HCl          hydrogen chloride

HClO        hydrogen hypochlorite

HClO2      hydrogen chlorite

HClO3      hydrogen chlorate

HClO4      hydrogen perchlorate

H3PO4      hydrogen phosphate

H2CO3      hydrogen carbonate

H2SO4      hydrogen sulfate

H2SO      hydrogen sulfite

HC2H3O2   hydrogen acetate 

H2C2O4     hydrogen oxalate

HBr          hydrogen bromide

HF            hydrogen fluoride   

Writing hydrogen first in a chemical formula indicates that when you dissolve the compound in water, a water molecule has the ability to pull the hydrogen off  (from strong electronegative elements like oxygen)  the molecule HXO3 and creating hydronium ions, H3O1+ and  a negative ion XO31- (cation).

The way you indicate this ionic solution is to write the formula followed by (aq) meaning a water solution:  HXO3 (aq) .

The first step is to drop the first word hydrogen and
add a second word

HCl          hydrogen chloride acid (aq)

HClO        hydrogen hypochlorite acid (aq)

HClO2      hydrogen chlorite acid (aq)

HClO3      hydrogen chlorate acid (aq)

HClO4      hydrogen perchlorate acid (aq)

H3PO4     hydrogen phosphate acid (aq)

H2CO3     hydrogen carbonate acid (aq)

H2SO4     hydrogen sulfate acid (aq)

H2SO3     hydrogen sulfite acid (aq)

HC2H3O2   hydrogen acetate acid (aq)

H2C2O4    hydrogen oxalate acid (aq)

HBr          hydrogen bromide acid (aq)

HF            hydrogen fluoride acid (aq)




The next step is to drop the suffix from the cation and make the following substitution with another suffix:

Change the -ate to -ic

Change the -ite to -ous

but the instead of coming up with a third suffix for -ide , they reused the -ic for -ide and added a prefix hydro- (Do not get this confused with the prefix hypo- which means 'under'.)

HCl          hydrochloric  acid (aq)

HClO        hypochlorous acid (aq)

HClO2      chlorous acid (aq)

HClO3      chloric  acid (aq)

HClO4      perchloric  acid (aq)

H3PO4     phosphoric  acid  (aq) (Put the -or- syllable back in the name)

H2CO3     carbonic  acid (aq)

H2SO4     sulfuric  acid  (aq) (Put the -ur- syllable back in the name)

H2SO3     sulfurous acid (aq) (Put the -ur- syllable back in the name)

HC2H3O2   acetic  acid (aq(Notice the three hydrogens written after carbon are NOT ionizable and not written first in the formula)

H2C2O4    oxalic acid (aq)

HBr          hydrobromic acid (aq)

HF            hydrofluoric acid (aq)

On Corwin 7th page 185 Questions 49-56 will give you more practice on writing names and formulas of acids.

At the end of chapter 6 Hein 14th exercises 17, 18, 19, and 20 pages 116-117 are additional acid nomenclature problems.




Chapter 3 Part E3    Binary/Ternary Acids                

Using a periodic chart write the names or formulas of the following compounds depending on whether the formula or name is given:


1.    HCl       _____________________


2.    H2SO4     ____________________


3.    HNO3      _____________________


4.  HNO2        ___________________


5.   H2CO3      ___________________


6.    Hypochlorous acid          _________


7.    Phosphoric acid              _________


8.    Sulfurous acid                 _________


9.    Perchloric acid                _________


10.  Hydrofluoric acid              ________


E3: Binary/Ternary Acid Names Homework:     


E3.1. Binary/Ternary Acid Formulas:


Submit grades on separate grading Sheet when taking M-4 Exam


Online Study Guide:





Chapter 3: Part E4    Inorganic Compounds        

The key to deciding which system to use in Part H is to look at the element written first.


 1. If a Metal is written first (or a polyatomic ion), then use the rules for ionic compounds (salts).

2. If a nonmetal is written first, then use the Covalent/Molecule System with prefixes. (If the compound is Organic Nomenclature of Organics is covered in Chapter 11, but for now use the prefix system of binary molecular nomenclature.

3. If hydrogen is written first (and it is in aqueous solution) then name it as an Acid


Chapter 3: Part G Matter Chart Sample Test Section 3.7

Draw below a matter chart similar to the chart in section 3.2 page 68 of the Corwin Introductory Chemistry text,, Figure 3.28 page 78 Suchocki text, or it may be of your own design as long as it clearly denotes lines which describe which words are subunits of the more general word.  The chart should include the following: homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, Matter, Pure Substances, Mixtures, Compounds, Elements, Solutions, Atoms, Molecules/Formula Units, and Colloids/Suspensions. Also draw/label the arrows: Separate Physically and Separate Chemically:             
 Fill in Below






Matter Chart Homework Critical Thinking:

Chapter 3: Part G1 Matter Chart-Critical Thinking Application

1..Where would you place: colloids in the matter chart?

2. If you subdivided Inorganic Compounds and Organic Compounds under compounds.,  sketch below where would you put: Salts, Acids, Bases, Covalent Compounds?


3. Sketch below and show under which subdivision would you put:

Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons



4. . Sketch below and show under which subdivision would you put:

electrons, protons, neutrons, nucleus, orbitals


Fill in Below:





 Chapter 3 Part P Periodic Properties  Section 3.3


Chapter 3 Part P: Periodic Chart Identification              

Selected symbols have been placed into the following blank periodic table of elements:


Which symbol in the above periodic table fits the following description?

_____1. an alkali metal


_____2. A halogen


_____3. an alkaline earth element


_____4. a noble gas


_____5. A representative element in the fifth period


_____6. a semimetal


_____7. An element in the lanthanide series


_____8.  an element with the atomic number 13


_____9. an element filling  a 5d sublevel


_____10. an element with six valence electrons


_____11. an element corresponding to: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7


_____12. an element with four valence electrons


_____13. an element in the actinide series


_____14. the main isotope of this element has zero neutrons in the nucleus


_____15. a representative element in the first period of the periodic table






Main Group Elements are also called Representative Elements


Periodic table's seventh row finally filled as four new elements are added

Discovery of four super-heavy chemical elements by scientists in Russia, America and Japan has been verified by experts and formally added to table

Four new elements have been added to the periodic table, finally completing the table’s seventh row and rendering science textbooks around the world instantly out of date.

The elements, discovered by scientists in Japan, Russia and America, are the first to be added to the table since 2011, when elements 114 and 116 were added.

The four were verified on 30 December by the US-based International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the global organization that governs chemical nomenclature, terminology and measurement.

IUPAC announced that a Russian-American team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California had produced sufficient evidence to claim the discovery of elements 115, 117 and 118.

Period drama: the story of the periodic table

The body awarded credit for the discovery of element 113, which had also been claimed by the Russians and Americans, to a team of scientists from the Riken institute in Japan.

Kosuke Morita, who was leading the research at Riken, said his team now planned to “look to the unchartered territory of element 119 and beyond.”

Ryoji Noyori, former Riken president and Nobel laureate in chemistry said: “To scientists, this is of greater value than an Olympic gold medal”.

The elements, which currently bear placeholder names, will be officially named by the teams that discovered them in the coming months. Element 113 will be the first element to be named in Asia.

“The chemistry community is eager to see its most cherished table finally being completed down to the seventh row,” said Professor Jan Reedijk, president of the Inorganic Chemistry Division of IUPAC.

 “IUPAC has now initiated the process of formalising names and symbols for these elements temporarily named as ununtrium, (Uut or element 113), ununpentium (Uup, element 115), ununseptium (Uus, element 117), and ununoctium (Uuo, element 118).”

Since the 19th century, European and American discoveries have monopolized the naming of elements on the periodic table. It is evident in entries like francium, germanium, scandium, polonium, europium, californium, berkelium and americium.

But now, for the first time, researchers in Asia will make an addition to chemistry’s most fundamental catalog.

Scientists from the Riken institute in Japan will bestow an official name on Element 113, currently known by the placeholder name ununtrium, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry announced last week.

The organization said that studies published by the Japanese scientists from 2004 to 2012 give the team the strongest claim to having discovered the element. The declaration comes more than 12 years after the Japanese team first attempted to synthesize the superheavy element, by firing beams of zinc at a thin bismuth film.

Led by Kosuke Morita, the group began to bombard bismuth atoms in a particle accelerator at 10 percent the speed of light in 2003. A year later, they successfully fused two atomic nuclei from these elements, creating their first nucleus of Element 113, but it decayed in less than a thousandth of a second. In 2005, the team produced Element 113 in a second event, but the chemistry union did not consider the demonstration strong enough to denote a discovery.

What Would You Name a New Element?

Imagine that you could name a new element on the periodic table. Send your ideas to with a 50-100 word explanation. Before your imagination gets away, consider these published guidelines for new elements (For linguistic consistency, the names of all new elements should end in “-ium”). In keeping with tradition, elements are named after:

  • A mythological concept or character (including an astronomical object);
  • A mineral, or similar substance;
  • A place or geographical region;
  • A property of the element; or
  • A scientist.

 “For over seven years, we continued to search for data conclusively identifying Element 113, but we just never saw another event,” Dr. Morita said in a statement. “I was not prepared to give up, however, as I believed that one day, if we persevered, luck would fall upon us again.”

In 2012, the team finally produced strong evidence that they had synthesized Element 113. Over the course of those nine years, the beam was active for 553 days and launched more than 130 quintillion zinc atoms, according to Nature.

The chemistry union, along with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, granted the Riken researchers naming rights to Element 113 over a joint Russia-United States team that had also claimed to discover the element.

The chemistry union’s decisions are detailed in two reports to appear in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry. In addition to Element 113, Elements 115, 117 and 118 will also receive official names. Teams from Russia and the United States discovered those elements.

With their discovery, the bottom row of the periodic table will be complete. Elements are numbered by the protons they have in their nucleus, and Elements 114 (flerovium) and 116 (livermorium) had previously been confirmed and named.

Dr. Morita has not yet announced what he intends to name Element 113, but according to a 2004 article in The Japan Times when the team first published its results, one likely contender may be “japonium.”